Article

About Course

Electronics is a part of our everyday life!

  •        

           Khaleelullah Khan

        Associate Prof., HOD

                ECE, KITE

         Electronics, and the usage of computers coupled with recent space age, endeavors has by this time already crept into every sphere of human activities. Every industry, institution & organization feels the need of an Electronics Engineer.Today’s world is very much for and of the Electronics and Communication Engineers.
    Advanced countries in the world have gone to such depths of Electronics today that an Electronics Engineer is indispensable in every front.

    Opportunity in this highly sophisticated and advanced branch of engineering is just immense.Electronics is now a part of our everyday life, from your pocket FM radio to televisions, computers, mobile phones and even the high-end satellites that process and sends images.
         Electronics and Communication Engineering is a field that deals with the design, manufacture, maintenance and operation of various electronic devices and communications equipment. As we are living in the age of advancements in electronics, plenty of career opportunities are available in this field for aspiring engineers.
            In the field of electronic engineering, engineers design and test circuits that use the electromagnetic properties of electrical components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes and transistors to achieve a particular functionality. The tuner circuit, which allows the user of a radio to filter out all but a single station, is just one example of such a circuit.
            In designing an integrated circuit, electronics engineers first construct circuit schematics that specify the electrical components and describe the interconnections between them. When completed, VLSI engineers convert the schematics into actual layouts, which map the layers of various conductor and semiconductor materials needed to construct the circuit. The conversion from schematics to layouts can be done by software (see electronic design automation) but very often requires human fine-tuning to decrease space and power consumption. Once the layout is complete, it can be sent to a fabrication plant for manufacturing.
            Integrated circuits and other electrical components can then be assembled on printed circuit boards to form more complicated circuits. Today, printed circuit boards are found in most electronic devices including televisions, computers and audio players.
             Electronic engineering has many subfields. This section describes some of the most popular subfields in electronic engineering although there are engineers who focus exclusively on one subfield, there are also many who focus on a combination of subfields.
    Signal processing deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals. Signals can be either analog, in which case the signal varies continuously according to the information, or digital, in which case the signal varies according to a series of discrete values representing the information.

             For analog signals, signal processing may involve the amplification and filtering of audio signals for audio equipment or the modulation and demodulation of signals for telecommunications. For digital signals, signal processing may involve the compression, error checking and error detection of digital signals.
    Telecommunications engineering deals with the transmission of information across a channel such as a co-axial cable, optical fiber or free space.
            Transmissions across free space require information to be encoded in a carrier wave in order to shift the information to a carrier frequency suitable for transmission, this is known as modulation. Popular analog modulation techniques include amplitude modulation and frequency modulation. The choice of modulation affects the cost and performance of a system and these two factors must be balanced carefully by the engineer.
         Once the transmission characteristics of a system are determined, telecommunication engineers design the transmitters and receivers needed for such systems. These two are sometimes combined to form a two-way communication device known as a transceiver. A key consideration in the design of transmitters is their power consumption as this is closely related to their signal strength. If the signal strength of a transmitter is insufficient the signal's information will be corrupted by noise.
    Control engineering has a wide range of applications from the flight and propulsion systems of commercial airplanes to the cruise control present in many modern cars. It also plays an important role in industrial automation.
            Control engineers often utilize feedback when designing control systems. For example, in a car with cruise control the vehicle's speed is continuously monitored and fed back to the system which adjusts the engine's power output accordingly. Where there is regular feedback, control theory can be used to determine how the system responds to such feedback.
    Instrumentation engineering deals with the design of devices to measure physical quantities such as pressure, flow and temperature. These devices are known as instrumentation.
            The design of such instrumentation requires a good understanding of physics that often extends beyond electromagnetic theory. For example, radar guns use the Doppler effect to measure the speed of oncoming vehicles. Similarly, thermocouples use the Peltier-Seebeck effect to measure the temperature difference between two points.
              Often instrumentation is not used by itself, but instead as the sensors of larger electrical systems. For example, a thermocouple might be used to help ensure a furnace's temperature remains constant. For this reason, instrumentation engineering is often viewed as the counterpart of control engineering.
    Computer engineering deals with the design of computers and computer systems. This may involve the design of new computer hardware, the design of PDAs or the use of computers to control an industrial plant. Development of embedded systems—systems made for specific tasks (e.g., mobile phones)—are also included in this field. This field includes the micro controller and its applications. Computer engineers may also work on a system's software. However, the design of complex software systems is often the domain of software engineering, which is usually considered a separate discipline.
    VLSI Design Engineering VLSI stands for very large scale integration. It deals with fabrication of ICs and various electronics components.

    Career Prospects
             Electronics and communication engineering course give enormous job opportunities in electronics and software companies. All electronic devices need software interface to run and come with one other or other device controlling programs architected and developed by electronics and communication engineering. It also gives great opportunities for  research and development, as everyday consumer need new devices to support them in daily life.
    Core companies offering jobs to Electronics and Communication Engineers:
             Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL), Intel, Samsung Electronics, Sony, Toshiba, Philips Semiconductors, Texas Instruments, LG Electronics, Nokia, AMD, CISCO, Nvdia, HP and IBM are just few to mention.
    Career in Computer & Mobile Communication
             Includes companies which provide data and voice communication facilities between computer Networks , individuals & organizations. Companies developing networking products & Cellular Mobile equipment will recruit ECE engineers. Major companies include BSNL, Reliance Infocom, Bharathi Communications, Tata Teleservices & Tata Communications.
    Career in Automotive domain
            
    Includes companies which develop electronic control units (ECU's) for vehicles, If you end up in this domain, you will possibly be designated as a Embedded software engineer and will be developing RTOS applications for microcontrollers which control the fuel injection, the speedometer display, tyre pressure monitoring units etc. Companies which can be included in this domain are Robert Bosch, Delphi.

    What you may get to do if you choose your career in Automotive domain?

              You must be good in embedded systems programming and if you want to work in these companies. You need to work on your operating systems concepts as they will be using some kind of RTOS for controlling the ECU's on the vehicles. You may be designated as an Embedded software engineer and assigned work to develop(if lucky) or fix applications or test applications written by others. You will be programming the microcontrollers to control the functions of these ECU's and once you start working on an ECU, that will become your specialty. You may also get to work on the multimedia functions of the vehicle, like the audio deck or radio of the car.
     
    Career in Consumer electronics domain
            Includes companies which develop a complete electronic product. These companies drive the design starting from the concept of the product, hardware, software, mechanical panel, marketing, after sales service. Lucky will be the guys who will get a job in these companies as you can witness the whole show starting from the

    • * Conceptualization of the product
    • * Hardware/PCB design, Software design
    • * Testing the product(Hardware and software)

             These are the companies which innovate new products and Samsung, Apple, Sony all come under these categories.

    What you may get to do if you choose your career in a Consumer electronics company?
            Well, if you end up being in a product company you will be recruited as an Hardware engineer or a Software engineer. If you are appointed as an Hardware engineer you may be designing the hardware boards for the product including the PCB layout design. If you are designated as Software engineer then you may be developing software for the product's hardware (microcontroller). Other than developing you may also be put to test the hardware / software to make the product robust and meet the quality guidelines.

    Embedded hardware/software design services domain
            
    Some consumer product companies may not have all the units efficient enough for developing all the hardware and software for their product. In such case they will outsource the PCB board design work or Software development work to another company called design services companies. These design services companies design the hardware or write the software according to the requirement of their client and charge money. This is how they survive, India's IT industry is comprised mostly by Services companies. Some of the embedded services companies are Wipro, Mindtree, Sasken.

    What you may get to do if you choose your career in Embedded Services domain?
             Nature of work will be same as the product companies, if you are hired as an hardware engineer you will be designing circuits and PCB's and as an software engineer you may be programming the clients hardware to make it work.

    VLSI / Chip design domain
            
    As the name suggests these companies are also called Semiconductor companies which design the integrated circuits used by almost every domain in the industry. These companies design chips and manufacture them in large quantities and sell them. Companies which do this work include the Texas instruments, Analog devices, Microchip, Analog devices. This domain also includes VLSI design services companies which only do the design work.

    What you may get to do if you choose your career in VLSI domain?
               If you chose your career in a chip design company you may be working as an layout engineer, where you will be designing the digital and analog circuits inside the chip, say oscillator units for a microcontroller, or timer modules for a microcontroller. You may also be made to work on testing the designs for speed, noise etc and be called a test engineer. Alternatively you can be a RF engineer and be designing Wireless modules, antennas, RF amplifiers.
    Software domain
            
    These companies are totally out of the domain for electronics and communication engineers. This domain is for Computer science engineers, but still E&C engineers get into these companies and end up developing software applications, developing websites, testing applications written by others. This domain contains both Software product companies and services companies too. TCS, Infosys come under this domain.

    What you may get to do if you choose your career in Software domain?
               If you unluckily end up here, you will be developing software applications using some programming language like JAVA, C, C++ etc. You can be employed for website development and maintenance work . For web development you may be working with web programming languages like PHP, VB, Javascript, HTML. You can also be put for mobile application development as an Android developer or Symbian or iOS developer.
    Government sector
             Final destination for all job seekers. Safest domain of all and you may end up being an officer or a head of some organization and take care of the design work outsourced by the government by tenders. Only place where the design work happens is in organizations like ISRO, DRDO, BARC. Most of the government organizations outsource the design work to outside services companies

    What you may get to do if you choose your career in Government sector?
    Here you may not have much to do as you will not be having any challenging work. If you get a job in some core technical organizations like ISRO, DRDO you will be doing the same hardware design, software development for hardware or testing.
    Entrepreneurship
            
    You can become an entrepreneur and start your own company as soon as you finish your college. But most of the people take this route after working in the industry for a few years and when they have made some money to invest. 
    Before you become an entrepreneur
                Work in a product company for few years and gain experience about how a product goes through its life cycle until it reaches customers hands. You may get to know what are the hurdles faced in the process.
    Make some money as any entrepreneurship venture will need money and you will not be earning money until you get some work or your product starts selling. So be safe and have some money in hand.
               An electronic engineer can find job in Consumer electronics manufacturing organizations, Telecommunication industry, IT industries, Health care equipment manufacturing industry, Mobile communication, Internet technologies, Power Electronics, and Other industries like steel, petroleum and chemical industry, directing control and testing production process.

    Working Conditions
               Electronics and communication engineering graduates can work for electrical utilities, communications companies, manufacturers, the military, government, or in the processing and transportation industries. They are also extensively involved in the manufacturing of electronic gadgets and devices. The work of an electronic engineer is varied and depends upon the industry they are working in.
               An electronics engineer can get a job in Central Government, State Governments and their sponsored corporations in public enterprises and the private organizations like All India Radio, Indian Telephone Industries, MTNL, National Physical Laboratories, Civil Aviation Department, Post and Telegraph Department, Co-ordination Department, National Physical Laboratory, Bharat Electronics Limited, Development Centers in various States etc., dealing in manufacture, sales and services of electronics consumer goods and appliances.
                Electronics engineers are also absorbed into the entertainment transmission industry, research establishments, and defense. They can also take up teaching and research in one of the many engineering colleges in India or abroad.
    Course Content

    • * Mathematics
    • * Electronic Circuit Analysis
    • * Digital design
    • * Control system
    • * Network Analysis & Synthesis
    • * Electronics Devices & Circuits
    • * Analog ICs
    • * Microprocessor & Microcontrollers
    • * Analog & Digital Communications
    • * Signals and systems
    • * Electronic Measurement & Instrumentation
    • * Antenna & Wave Propagation
    • * Digital Signal Processing & DSPA Architecture
    • * Applied Electronics
    • * Digital Electronics
    • * Electromagnetic & Transmission Lines
    • * Linear Control Systems
    • * Virtual Instrumentation & Data Acquisition
    • * Total Quality Management
    • * Programmable Logic Controllers & Applications
    • * VLSI Design
    • * Computer Control of Industrial Process
    • * Cellular & Mobile Communications and many more…

       
    Hands on practical in

    • * Analyzing of Electronic Circuits with different simulation Softwares.
    • * Designing of Electronic & Communication systems.
    • * Processing of Signals & Images.
    • * Techniques for the transmissions Analog & Digital Signals.
    • * Techniques for Designing & Fabrication of Chips.

    Salary & Pay packages after engineering in E C E
             Depending upon the performance and the type of the organization an ECE graduate can earn upto 2.4 L to 4.8 L per annum. Even higher salaries can be earned if got selected in some reputed private and government organizations.