Specializations in Electronics Engineering

More than 1.2 million engineers work in America today, making engineering the nation's second largest profession.US companies prefer to hire engineers who have graduated from accredited programs in the US. Some of the reasons for choosing students who have graduated from US over others are that employers are not usually aware of the quality standards in education followed in other countries hence they rely on universities within USA that are accredited and meet high standards in quality of education.
A career post completion of masters in electronics and communications based specialisations in the US offers the potential for a challenging, rewarding, and lucrative career. The continued expansion of electronics and telecommunications technology throughout the world and especially in USA has made a Master's of Science (M.S) in various related fields a highly sought after degree. There are several specialisations which a student can choose from.

Masters in Science with Specialization in Telecommunications

Telecommunication is a diversified field of engineering thatincludes and integrates topics ranging from electronics, civilstructural, and electrical engineering. It also includes subjects covering a little bit of accounting and a lot of project management. The role of telecom engineers isto providethe best possible solutions for good quality voice and high-speed data services.
With the expansion of telecom industry and integration with data and internet technologies, a wide variety of career options are available to people who have completed an M.S in Telecommunications depending on the focus of the program. They can take up role as IT managers who organize, implement and constantly improve the IT operations.Companies rely on the IT department to keep their networks running, databases and other important software working and backed up and protected .A Telecommunication Specialist designs, installs and maintains communications networks. Like phone systems, Internet, wireless technologies, satellite and GPS systems.
Overall admission in electronics and communications stream in USA is tough due to high competition. It is preferable to have an Engineering percentage of 60%+. While some universities offer admission without GRE many of them require at least 298.  Analytical writing score is also usually important. Minimum required score is 3.0.  At top universities academic requirements also goes above 70% with no backlogs and GRE requirement exceeding 305 with analytical score of 3.5.

Digital Signal and Image Processing

Digital Signal Processing(DSP) and Digital Signal and Image Processing (DSIP) have a wide variety of applications ranging from television, radio transmission and receivers to any applications where signals need to be processed. DSP has many advantages over analogue processing. It is able to provide far better levels of signal processing than is possible with analogue systems.
Digital Signal and Image Processing is at the forefront of information technology. It forms the basis for a growing variety of applications including medical diagnosis in the health care industry, remote sensing in various consumer, industrial, governance, defence and military industry, geophysical prospecting in mining and exploration, space exploration, molecular biology, microscopy and machine vision in medical and scientific research, and particularly in all types of manufacturing industries.
Graduates in this option choose from a wide range of careers embracing telecommunications, the automotive industry, medical imaging and, again, software houses and industrial research where demand for skills is high. The role of a person who is a specialist in DSIP would be to develop, maintain, manage and improve systems in any of the chosen fields. As the demand for automation rises there is constant need for improving existing systems.
This course is widely available in many US universities. Students require a minimum of 60%+ in bachelors. Some universities do not require GRE scores but many expect at least 298.

VLSI Design

Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating integrated circuits by combining thousands of transistors into a single chip. VLSI began in the 1970s when complex semiconductor and communication technologies were being developed. The microprocessor is a VLSI device. Structured VLSI design is a modular methodology for saving microchip area by minimizing the interconnect fabrics area. This is obtained by repetitive arrangement of rectangular macro blocks which can be interconnected using wiring by abutment.
There are a variety of career opportunities in product companies, design services companies and electronic design automation (EDA) companies. Product and application domains of VLSI include mobile and consumer electronics, computing, telecommunications and networking, data processing, automotive, healthcare and industrial applications.
Some good segments include industrial and automotive microcontrollers, wireless infrastructure, consumer digital TV and handheld devices, and computing/storage infrastructure. Emerging areas include smart-energy product development, medical telemetry application, and high-end application processor development.
The VLSI industry has an added attraction of being a strong domain for patents filing, invention disclosures and applied research. This course is widely available in many US universities. Acedemic requirements are flexible and students with average profiles can also find opening in this stream.

Embedded Systems

Embedded systems engineer is a relatively new classification that merges electronics engineering and computer science. Embedded systems are processing cores that act as microcontrollers dedicated to specific tasks. Design engineers can optimize it to reduce the size and cost of the product and increase the reliability and performance. Physically, embedded systems range from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players, to large fixed installations like traffic lightsfactory controllers. These systemscan be fairly simple like a single microcontroller chipor extremely complex with multiple units, peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure. Embedded systems are now being mass-produced and benefiting from economies of scale.
A career in embedded systems is one of the better career options available for students today. Embedded systems engineerscan work for both technology that touches the life of the common manliking writing software that determines the controls of washers, cars, dryers, etc as well as  work on high-end systems ranging from robots to factory assembly lines. Embedded systems engineers are most likely to get placed in companies dealing with the engineering requirements of automobiles,companies that build embedded systems for the armed forces of a country, companies that specialize in building embedded systems for controlling railway signals, mills, petrochemical plants, pharmaceutical factories, bottling plants, etc. Embedded systems are also used in monitors, scanners, machines used for chemotherapy, diagnostic equipments, pacemakers, ventilators, etc. Therefore a specialist in embedded systems can have a career in a very wide ranging set of industries.
This course is widely available in many US universities. Students require atleast 60% in bachelors with GRE of at least 29.

Radio Frequency /Microwaves and Electromagnets

Radio frequency, Microwaves, Nano waves and electromagnetsis a highly specialized field falling typically in one of two areas;
1) Providing or controlling coverage with some kind of antenna/transmission system and
2) Generating or receiving signals to or from that transmission system to other communications electronics or controls.
To produce quality results, an in-depth knowledge of mathematicsphysics, general electronics theory as well as specialized training in areas such as wave propagation, impedance transformations, filters, micro-strip circuit board design, etc. may be required.It covers aspects of applied electromagnetics including antennas, radio wave propagation, microwave and radio frequency (RF) circuits and transmission structures, optical components and lasers, and engineering acoustics.
RF and Microwave Engineering has been one of the fastest growth areas of the past decade and is likely to remain a technology in demand as its applications cover critical areas such as radar, remote sensing, remote control, sensors, navigation, surveillance, electronic warfare, radiometers, plasma research, and imaging.
Career options for those graduating in these fields can opt for industries relating to Intelligent transport systems, Automotive and aerospacetechnologies, Mobile communication, Sensors for health, environmentand other automation industry, Biological and bio-chemical interfaces, Health care and Biomems.  Fresh graduates in this field are likely to be placed in industries such as telecommunications networks, fibre optics, robotics, Component designing for various industries. Since This specialisation is available in few good universities only academic requirements are slightly higher. Students need 65%+ with no backlogs and GRE score of 298+ to get admission.

Wireless Communications

Wireless communication is used when the use of electrical cord is almost impossible. This technology has permitted us to expand our horizons in communication beyond what we thought would be possible.  Wireless communication uses energy sources to transfer information. As an example radio frequency, infra red light, laser light, acoustic energy are some of the sources of energy used in wireless communication. Therefore study of wireless technology requires an understanding of many of these separate fields.
Wireless technology is now been used in a wide range of fieldsranging fromear pieces, TV remote, cellular phones and modems to Wi-Fi and long range guidance systems. Wireless communication has helped us reach new levels of communication heights. It would be impossible to communicate using satellites if this technology was not available. The technology is now being used to communicate with astronauts in space and submarines which are hundreds of meters below sea level. Wireless has truly become the window in future communication.
Graduates from this field can build a career in fields like medical equipment, telecommunications, manufacturing, Fibre optic specialists, laser specialists, automotive technologiesand in buildingintelligent transport systems.
This specialisation is available in few universities. The cut off’s are also usually higher with 298+in GRE and 70%+ in bachelors.

Control Systems

Control engineering focuses on the modelling of a diverse range of dynamic systems and the design of controllers that will cause these systems to behave in the desired manner. To implement such controllers electrical engineers may use electrical circuitsdigital signal processorsmicrocontrollers and PLCs (Programmable Logic Controllers). Therefore study of wireless technology requires an understanding of many of these separate fields. The role of a control systems engineer is development leading to integration of functions for sensing, monitoring and controlling products and systems.
Students how graduate from this course can contribute to the development leading to integration of functions for sensing, monitoring and controlling products and systems. There are substantial industrial needs, ranging from small embedded devices to large control systems for production or electric power distribution,flight and propulsion systems of commercial airliners, cruise control in many modern automobiles. It also plays an important role in industrial automation and medical and scientific research.
This course is widely available in many US universities. Acedemic requirements are flexible and students with average profiles can also find opening in this stream. Students can also get admission without GRE.

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