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సివిల్ సర్వీసెస్‌ మెయిన్స్ 2018కు ఉప‌యోగ‌ప‌డే జ‌న‌ర‌ల్ ఎస్సే టాపిక్‌లు

* మెయిన్స్‌లో మెరుద్దాం ఇలా

సివిల్స్‌ సర్వీసెస్‌ నియామక పరీక్ష ప్రక్రియలో ప్రధానపరీక్ష (మెయిన్‌) రెండోది. దీనిలో అర్హత పొందటమే కాదు, మెరుగైన మార్కులు కూడా తెచ్చుకోగలిగితే సర్వీస్‌కు ఎంపికయ్యే అవకాశాలు మెరుగవుతాయి. సెప్టెంబరు 28 నుంచి ఐదురోజుల పాటు జరగబోయే మెయిన్స్‌ పరీక్షల్లో ఈసారి కంపల్సరీ, ఆప్షనల్‌ సబ్జెక్టుల మధ్య వారం రోజుల విరామం వస్తోంది. ఇది అభ్యర్థులకు మేలు చేసే అంశమే. సబ్జెక్టుల్లో పరిజ్ఞానం సంపాదించటం ఒక ఎత్తయితే.. అడిగిన ప్రశ్నకు అనుగుణంగా పాయింట్లవారీగా సూటిగా రాయగలగటం మరో ఎత్తు. 80శాతం విజయానికి కారణమయ్యే 20శాతం కీలక అంశాలపై పట్టు సాధిస్తే విజయం తథ్యం!

నాలుగు జనరల్‌ స్టడీస్‌ పేపర్లు, రెండు ఆప్షనల్స్‌, ఒక జనరల్‌ ఎస్సే, రెండు క్వాలిఫైయింగ్‌ లాంగ్వేజ్‌ పేపర్లతో కూడిన విలక్షణమైన పరీక్ష.. సివిల్స్‌ మెయిన్స్‌. ప్రాథమికాంశాలను పటిష్ఠం చేసుకోవటం, జనరల్‌ ఎస్సే, ఆప్షనల్‌లో అత్యధిక మార్కులు సాధించటంపై అభ్యర్థులు దృష్టిపెట్టాలి. మెయిన్‌ పరీక్షలో రెండు ఎస్సేలను రాయాల్సివుంటుంది. వీటిలో ఒకటి వర్తమాన వ్యవహారాలకు సంబంధించినదైవుంటుంది. స్వాతంత్య్రం, విజ్ఞానం-విద్య, శాంతి, అహింస, బాలలు, యువకులు, బాల కార్మికులు, చట్టం-పాలన, నాయకత్వం లాంటి ముఖ్యమైన అంశాల్లో పరిజ్ఞానం పెంచుకోవాలి. పరీక్షలో ఎస్సేను ఎంపిక చేసుకోవటం అనేది చాలా ముఖ్యం. ఒక్కో టాపిక్‌లో రాయగలిగిన పాయింట్లను నోట్‌ చేసుకోవటానికి పది నిమిషాల వ్యవధిని వెచ్చించినా తప్పులేదు. అప్పుడే ఆ టాపిక్‌కు 1200 పదాల్లో న్యాయం చెయ్యగలుగుతామా అనేది ముందే అర్థమవుతుంది.

General Essay topics for Civils mains: 2018
1. Innovation and entrepreneurship in India: opportunities and challenges.
2. If there were only one truth, you couldn't paint a hundred canvases on the same theme.
3. Will fresh water shortages cause the next great global crisis?
4. Strengthening health care system in India: is privatization the only answer?
5. The changing identities of cities in the 21st century.
6. The JAM system is reshaping ties between the state and citizens in India.
7. The world needs Gandhiji's ideas more than ever today.
8. Artificial Intelligence has the power to make human intelligence obsolete.
9. Privacy in the digital era: myths and realities.
10. Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) are not a panacea for infrastructural challenges of India.
11. In contemporary world politics, smart power is neither hard nor soft, it is both.
12. What makes the desert beautiful is that somewhere it hides a well.
13. Early childhood development: the promise, the problem, and the path forward.
14. Is democracy the best setting for strong economic growth?
15. Creating a clean India: prospects and challenges.
16. What will it take to make gender equality the norm, not the exception?
17. Electric Cars by 2030: can India make this happen?
18. Cinema: a reflection of society or a tool for social transformation?
19. Waste management in India: challenges and opportunities.
20. UN reforms: a step long overdue.
21. Women health and sanitation in rural India: issues, challenges and opportunities.
22. Indiaís Non-Performing Asset (NPA) problem: an outcome of political profligacy or managerial incapacities?
23. Language should not be a barrier but a facilitator.
24. Big Data: lifeblood of decision-making and prudent governance in the contemporary era.
25. Accountability in India's police services: Who watches the watchmen?
26. Good nutrition is the foundation of human development.
27. From non-alignment to multi-alignment: Shift in India's foreign policy.
28. Cryptocurrencies: Potential and Threat.
29. When government fears the people, there is liberty. When the people fear the government, there is tyranny.
30. Dysfunctional WTO: Where is the world trade headed?
31. Fighting poverty and climate change: A challenge for developing countries.
32. Nuclear disarmament is the need of the hour.
33. If any machine is misused, the moral evil is in the man who misuses it, not in the machine.
34. Why doesn't India have its own Silicon Valley?
35. Indiaís experience with Federalism: Evolution, achievements and challenges.
36. Child Labor: A necessary evil or just plain evil?
37. The more things change, the more they stay the same.
38. Export led growth in India: Vision and reality.
39. ASEAN-India: Emerging challenges to shared values and common destiny.
40. Independence of judiciary is the hallmark of democracy.
41. Is the World Witnessing Reverse Globalization?
42. Agriculture.
43. Climate Change:
a. Ecological considerations need not hamper development.
b. Urbanization is a blessing in disguise.
c. Protection of Ecology and Environment is essential for sustained Economic Development.
d. Urbanization and its hazards.
e. Should a moratorium be imposed on all fresh mining in Tribal areas of the country?
44. Tourism in India.
45. Socio-Cultural Diversity of India.
46. Social Media and Its Evils.
47. Education in India.
48. Women Empowerment.

Framework and Pointers for Essay on: Social Media & Its Evils Quotes by famous personalities
★ Social media has played a key role in democratising our discourse - Narendra Modi
★ Technology and social media have brought power back to the people - Mark McKinnon
★ The great thing about social media was how it gave a voice to voiceless people - Jon Ronson
★ Whoever controls the media, controls the mind - Jim Morrison
★ Connectivity is a human right - Mark Zuckerberg.

INTRODUCTION
Connectivity and communicating form the basis for sharing, learning, debating and discussing.
★ Beginning from the ancient times, they have been an integral component of our lives, our society. They not involve direct modes like talking, sending letters etc., but also indirect modes like - performing arts and non-performing arts. Today, social media is becoming an integral part of our life. Our days starts with
checking and updating our social media accounts and ends on a similar note. However amidst all these, there has been growing reception and debate on the problems and the challenges of social media

DEFINITION
In common parlance, Social media is seen synonymous with Facebook, Twitter, Whatsapp, LinkedIn etc.
However, social media goes beyond this and has a much more broader scope. It is an umbrella term and, refers to websites and applications that enables users to
create, share content, interact and to participate in social networking.

RISE OF SOCIAL MEDIA - WHY?
Social media has often been described as the silent revolution of the 21st century. Recently the total number of social media users crossed 3 billion with no sign
of slowing down. But why is the Social media so popular ? Why is it becoming indispensable ? Why is it becoming the first choice for almost everything from news to governance; from buying and selling goods to mobilising support for social movements?

Some of the factors:
★ USPs of Social Media
★ Digital Penetration and applications
★ As a marker of Social status : Social media has emerged as a marker of social status with people increasingly sharing their pictures, videos and personal information. Increasing number of comments, likes, followers have become a status symbol; Rise of social media celebrities etc.
★ Speed; Ease of use; Flexibility; No User fees (Most of the social media applications don't charge any fees for registration or usage); All it takes is a click to send, post, share and receive information.
★ Number of Indian internet users have already reached 500 million with their number increasing day-by-day. In addition there has been a proliferation of social media sites and applications. Rising urbanisation, individualism and breakdown of traditional social structures.

WHAT HAS SOCIAL MEDIA DONE?
The introduction of social media has changed the world in may ways. Today, Social media has penetrated every aspect of human life and society. It has connected
people live never before.
★ Accessibility through smart phones, tablets, computers, and other mobile devices has made accessing information and connecting with people just a touch away.
It has made the world stronger and a better place to live in.

Some of the prominent benefits -:
★ Politics and Media
★ As a tool for political campaigning and advertising; as a tool for eliciting opinion of people on schemes, initiatives, legislations; as a tool for policy
implementation and monitoring; as a tool for enforcing transparency and accountability; as a tool for mobilising support for political movements
★ Examples - Role of Social media in winning elections for Barack Obama, Narendra Modi etc MyGov.in, a portal by government for taking feedback from people; Arab Spring - Social media had a huge role in mobilising support for the Arab Spring.
★ Social Issues & Media
★ Have helped in making people more tolerant, aware about otherís beliefs, culture etc.; Broadening of mental horizon; Aided in giving voice to voiceless like
Women, Black people in USA, Tribals etc.
★ Have helped in enhancing the reach of delivery of education, health. Examples - Metoo Campaign; BlackLivesMatter; Khan academy; SWAYAM
★ Economy & Media
★ New source of employment - Every organisation now has a separate social media department; As a tool for feedback for companies - Concept of PROSUMER;
e-Commerce; Boost to start-up; Digital Marketing; Enabled even remote handicrafts
★ Examples - e-Commerce; Startups; Patanjali Ayurved Limited has made huge impact through social media; Dettolís Global Handwashing Day social media campaign

Ecology & Media
★ Social media has also enabled people to become more consciously aware about environment and environment protection. World Environment Day and Earth
Day became global trendsetters and helped in raising awareness about environment; Mobilisation for protests against Sterlite Plant in Tamil Nadu were led by Social media.

Ethics & Media
★ Social media has become a means for free speech and expression guaranteed under Article 19 of Indian constitution; Social media given voice to the
voiceless; Right to Internet is now being gradually recognized.
★ For e.g. UN had made Internet access a human right; Recently Supreme Court has declared Right To Internet Access as a fundamental Right Of Every Indian.

SOCIAL MEDIA - ITS CHALLENGES
Access
★ Digital penetration in India still continues to skewed against rural areas, women, lower class etc.
★ In addition, there is serious lack of digital literacy and social media application in Vernacular languages.
Privacy
★ Social media has put a huge question mark of privacy of people. E.g. Case of Facebook and Cambridge Analytica where personal information of users was
being traded for monetary gains.

Challenges to internal Security
★ Social media has also enabled radical and terrorist groups to promote radicalisation, recruit people and distribute their literature; Issue of Lone-wolf
attacks who have been radicalised by these literatures
★ For e.g. ISIS has successfully used social media .

Psychological and Health Problems
★ Problem of social media addiction ,Problem of FOMO (Fear of Missing Out); Live-streaming of suicides .

Commodification of public life
★ Problem of Cyber crimes,
★ Problem of Fake News and Propaganda.

CONCLUSION
Social media today has emerged as a double-edged sword. While it has transformed the way what we think, believe and act, it has led to violation of privacy, problem of trolls, fake news etc.

The way forward must be to ensure:
★ Formulation and enforcement of Strict Privacy Law
★ Strict cyber security system and Law enforcement
★ Making children aware of the problems of social media right from the beginning by Parents, Teachers and Society at large .
As Victor Hugo said, No power on earth can stop an idea whose time has come". Today, this power is Social Media.

Framework and Pointers for Essay on: Tourism in India
Quotes by famous personalities
★ The one land that all men desire to see and having seen once, by even a glimpse, would not give the glimpse for all the shows of all the rest of the globe combined- Mark Twain
★ Travel makes one modest. You see what a tiny place you occupy in the world. - Gustave
Flaubert
★ The journey is the destination. - Dan Eldon
★ Travelling unveils new dimensions of this world not known to the naked eye. - Wayne Chirisa
DEFINITION
★ UN World Tourism Organization - "Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes."
★ How Tourism is different from Travel?
★ In order for tourism to happen, there must be a displacement: an individual has to travel, using any type of means of transportation (foot pilgrims, hikers, etc). But all travel is not tourism.
INTRODUCTION
★ The world is a book and those who do not travel read only one page. This saying by St. Augustine truly captures the spirit of travel, and India as a vibrant country, provides scores of reasons for travelers from across the world to choose India as their destination
★ While tourism is often resource-intensive, it is a major driver of poverty reduction in developing countries. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru for the first time brought to notice the importance of tourism in the country. According to him, it was not only an instrument of earning foreign exchange but also a means of seeking international cooperation, understanding and peace between the nations.

FACTSTATISTICS RELATED WITH TOURISM
★ The international tourism industry $1.4 trillion
★ The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce in India (FICCI) and investment bank Yes Bank found in a study that the average trip travel spent by a tourist in India is almost 2.8 times the travel time spent in Singapore, 4.5 times that in Malaysia and 6.5 times in China. Yet, the contribution of the tourism industry to the gross domestic product, or GDP, is less than that of China, Malaysia and Singapore.

TYPES OF TOURISM
★ Recreational tourism, Environmental tourism, Historical tourism,Ethnic tourism,Cultural tourism, Adventure tourism, Health tourism, Religious tourism, Music tourism,Village tourism&Wild life tourism.

DIMENSIONS OF TOURISM
Historical
★ Historically, the ability to travel was reserved for royalty and the upper classes. From ancient Roman times through to the 17th century, young men of high standing were encouraged to travel through Europe on a grand tour. Through the middle Ages, many societies encouraged the practice of religious pilgrimage (the most popular form since history evident in India) .
★ The Industry growth however had also been interrupted at several key points in history, including World War I, the Great Depression, and World War II. At the start of this century, global events thrust international travel into decline including the September 11, 2001, attack on the World Trade Center in New York City (known as 9/11), the war in Iraq, perceived threat of future terrorist attacks, and health scares including SARS, BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy), and West Nile virus. o At the same time, the industry began a massive technological shift as increased internet use revolutionized travel services. Through the 2000s, online travel bookings grew exponentially, and by 2014 global leader Expedia had expanded to include brands such as Hotels.com, the Hotwire Group, Trivago, and Expedia Cruise Ship Centers, earning revenues of over $4.7 million.
Social and Cultural
★ Social and cultural impact signifies the impact which it creates in terms of social changes in the lives of local people how popular cultures influence on one another, improvements in infrastructure, Resurgence of traditional crafts and ceremonies, lifestyle changes, increased intercultural communication and understanding etc.
International Dimensions: Tourism and Peace
Tourism can play a key role in building peace and supporting reconciliation processes, Community engagement and empowerment, capacity building and training, and public/private sector partnerships are key factors in advancing a culture of peace through tourism in post conflict societies.
Economic
★ The tourism industry generates substantial ,economic benefits to both host countries and touristís home countries. Especially in developing countries, one of the primary motivations for a region to promote itself as a tourism destination is the expected economic gain.
Environmental Dimensions
★ Environment as an Attraction ,The TourismEnvironment Connection
CHALLENGES FACING TOURISM IN INDIA
★ Infrastructure roadblocks, Environmental concerns, Resources concern, Fragmented Policy and Programs, Socioeconomic concerns, Violence, Health Standards,
★ Regulation: Stringent visa norms and movement viz a viz other countries (e.g. Schengen region in Europe) are also a roadblock in promoting tourism.
SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
★ The international community declared 2017 as International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development. In this context, it may already become visible how seriously the international community and the nation states are taking the 2030 Agenda
SOLUTIONS AND WAY FORWARD
★ Tourism requires a strong coordination at interministerial levels as the customer experience is dependent on visas, air passage, and health regulations, import restrictions, which come under the jurisdiction of home, civil aviation, health, finance, environment and commerce ministries.
★ Need to have Toursim Councils in all districts of India.
★ Ecotourism needs to be promoted so that tourism in India helps in preserving and sustaining the diversity of Indiaís natural and cultural environments
INDIAíS RECENT STEPS IN PROMOTION OF TOURISM
★ Swadesh Darshan, National Mission on Pilgrimage rejuvenation and Augmentation Drive, PRASAD,Hunar Se Rozgar Tak,Swachh Bharat Swachh Pakwan(Hunar Zaika), Incredible India Helpline
CONCLUSION
★ Tourism can also be seen as a way forward to promote pluralism and multiculturalism, which can further help to build and spread the feeling of secularism and communal harmony among diverse communities of India.
★ The future of tourism in India is certainly bright but we do have a long road ahead. Philosopher Lao Tzu said a journey of a thousand miles must begin with a single step, and with recent developments in the sector, that step has already been taken. Framework and Pointers for Essay on: Women Empowerment According to the World Bank Empowerment is the process of increasing the capacity of individuals or groups to make choices and to transform those choices into desired actions and outcomes.
Quotes of famous personalities
★ No better tool of empowerment than Women themselves Kofi Annan
★ A woman is like a tea bag; you can't tell how strong she is until you put her in hot water Eleanor Roosevelt
★ I measure the progress of a community by the degree of progress which women have achieved B. R. Ambedkar
★ You educate a man; you educate a man. You educate a woman; you educate a generation Brigham Young
★ Man can never be a woman's equal in the spirit of selfless service with which nature has endowed her Mahatma Gandhi
★ There is considerable evidence that women's education and literacy tend to reduce the mortality rates of children Amartya Sen
ANECDOTES:
The Hindu prominently highlighted the success of allwomen crew which circumnavigated the globe on Indiabuilt sail boat INSV Tarini. The same paper also carried reports of 19yearold CBSE topper from Haryana's Rewari alleges gangraped by 12 while returning from coaching centre.
According to United Nations Womenís empowerment has five components:
1. Womenís sense of selfworth;
2.Their right to have and to determine choices;
3.Their right to have access to opportunities and resources;
4. Their right to have power to control their own lives, both within and outside the home; and
5.Their ability to influence the direction of social change to create a more just social and economic order, nationally and internationally.
Economic Survey 201718 has defined gender inequality in the following dimensions
1. AGENCY Exclusive decision making power over reproduction; financial resources, spending on their own health and mobility.
2. ATTITUDE .
3. OUTCOMES.

STATUS OF WOMEN SINCE ANCIENT TIMES:
1. The Rig Veda says, The wife and husband, being the equal halves of one substance.
2. Women achievers Lopamudra; Maitreyi; Gargi; Ahilya Bai Holkar; etc.
3. The Indian renaissance began during the time of British rule with the help of
leaders like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
4. Women like Sarojini Naidu, Aruna Asaf Ali, Kalpana Dutt, Pritilata Waddedar,
Sucheta Kriplani, Usha Mehta etc. became an integral part of Indiaís Independence movement.

DIMENSIONS TO WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: (SOCIAL & CULTURAL EMPOWERMENT ):
1. At individual level
2. At familial and societal level
3. At familial and societal level
4. At the level of framing and implementation of laws: The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 especially Section 498A of IPC; No separate definition or classification of Honour Killing as an offence in India (treated as a murder under Section 300 of the IPC punishable under Section 302).

PARADOXES & CONTRADICTIONS:
India belongs to a land where women are revered as goddess. They are given a sacred status whereas on the other hand, they are debarred entry to temples (Sabarimala Issue).

PROBLEMS FACED BY WORKING WOMEN IN SOCIETY:
1. Definition and restrictions in career for women: Womenís household work (Care economy) is unpaid, Pinkcollared jobs, Feminization of agriculture and informal sector.
2. Glassceiling effect, Sexual harassment at workplace .
3. Continuous discrimination regarding womenís share in parental/ancestral property.
4. The Second Shiftí (Work at office and at home)
5. Women continue to be denied leadership positions constituting just 7% of seats on boards of publicly traded companies (as per World Economic Forumís 2015 Gender Gap report). In rural India, the percentage of women who depend on agriculture for their livelihood is as high as 84%. They make up about 33% of cultivators and about 47% of agricultural labourers
6. Less representation in Politics, bureaucracy and army.
★ Women constituting only 11.8% of Lok Sabha and 11% of Rajya Sabha.
★ States of Gujarat and Bihar have implemented 33% reservation for women in police force.
★ Government has allowed directentry women officers in all 5 Central Armed Police Forces.
★ Government also plans to induct women in 33% constablerank personnel in CRPF and CISF and 15% in the border guarding forces BSF, SSB and ITBP.
7. Political Empowerment of Women inIndia
A.Women make up 11.8% of the Lok Sabha and 11% of the 245member Rajya Sabha.
B.Women constitute only 9% of the State Assembly members and 5% of the State Council members. States like Mizoram, Nagaland and Puducherry have zero women MLAs.
C.Women constitute only 7.28% of the police force in India according to the government data.
D.India has been ranked 148 globally in terms of representation of women in executive government and parliament as per the report titled Women in Politics, 2017 published byInter Parliamentary Union (IPU) and UN Women. KCR cabinet has no women representation.
8. The representation of women in media has always suffered from a perception bias. Many women centric movies (Raazi, Queen, Hichki).
9. WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGY: Upcoming challenges to women labour owing to Artificial intelligence and Machine labour. women have suffered harassment in various forms such as trolling, cyberstalking, cyberharassment, imagemorphing.Technology has led to dispensability of women labour in agriculture, manufacturing, leading to female foeticide, sex selective abortions.
10. WOMEN AND SPORTS:While women have continued to face discrimination in sports starting right from family, sports personnels and to society as a whole, it were two women sportspersons P. V. Sindhu and Sakshi Malik who brought glory to India in 2016 Olympics.

ECOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT :
Nature or Earth is ascribed with the status of Mother.Ecofeminism Ecofeminism was a term first used by Francoise DíEaubonne in 1980 and gained popularity in protests and actions against continued ecological disaster. It is a joining of environmental, feminist, and womenís spirituality concerns.

Sustainable solutions The response at Global Level
★ UN Women and UN Environment have joined forces under a global programme to promote womenís entrepreneurship for sustainable energy. The programme
will initially roll out in Senegal, Morocco, Myanmar, India, Indonesia and Bolivia. ï 100,000 Women in India estimated to gain access to clean, renewable energy as part of current programme efforts.Prominent Examples where women have been at the forefront of movements against ecological destruction:
1. Bishnoi movement in 1700s was led by Amrita Devi .
2. Chipko movement: Vandana Shiva an ecofeminist was involved in it.
3. Narmada Bachao Andolan was led by Medha Patkar
4. The First World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) to take into account ecological degradation was headed by a woman, Gro Harlem Brundtland.

CONCLUSION:
1. Empowering women is key to our tomorrow, our future.
2. Andre Beteille has said Law only decides the direction which a society should take, the actual direction of the society is decided by its culture.
3. Kofi Annan says that there is no better tool of empowerment than Women themselves.
4. Yatra naryastu pujyante ramante tatra devta ñ As per Manusmriti Where Women are honoured, divinity blossoms there, and where ever women are dishonoured, all action no matter how noble it may be, remains unfruitful.

Framework and Pointers for Essay on: SocioCultural diversity in India
Quotes of famous personalities:
1. Diversity may be the hardest thing for a society to live with, and perhaps the most dangerous thing for a society to be without W. S. Coffin Jr.
2. When we lose the right to be different, we lose the privilege to be free C. E. Hughes
3. The highest result of education is tolerance Helen Keller
4. We may have different religions, different languages, different colored skin, but we all belong to one human race Kofi Annan
5. Civilization will reach maturity only when it learns to value diversity of character and of ideas Arthur C. Clarke Anecdotes: Like Sugar in Milk Meeting between Jadi Rana and the Parsi emigrants.
Definition:
1. Understanding that each individual is unique and different. These differences can be along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status and, political beliefs.
2.Recognition of these differences.
3.Mutual tolerance and acceptance of these differences, and to embrace and celebrate the rich dimensions of diversity contained within each individual. Indian society provides the most potent illustration of sociocultural diverse society as manifested in form of different religions, languages food habits, customs, dresses, festivals, beliefs etc. It has also been referred to as the oldest surviving civilisation (approximately 5000 years old) inspite of being a target for invasions from Mughals, Britishers etc. Shashi Tharoor has said, If America is a meltingpot, then to me India is a thali, a selection of sumptuous dishes in different bowls. Each tastes different, and does not necessarily mix with the next, but they belong together on the same plate, and they complement each other in making the meal a satisfying repast.India has often been described as an ethnological museum consisting of six main ethnic
groups ñ
Ethnic Group
Strain in India
Negrito
In some of the tribes in South India; Andaman Islands in Bay of Bengal etc.
ProtoAustraloids
In the tribes of Middle India etc.
Mongoloids
In North Eastern regions etc.
Mediterranean
In TamilNadu and Andhra Pradesh etc.
Western Brachycephals
In Odisha, Parsis of Bombay etc.
Nordic
In Bania castes of Gujarat; the Kayasthas of Bengal, etc.
1. Geographical Diversity : India has been endowed with a very diverse geographic features like dry deserts, evergreen forests, Himalayan mountains, long coastlines and fertile plains.In fact, India is of the 17 megadiverse countries globally. In addition, India is also home to 3 biodiversity hotspots.
2. Religious Diversity Land of Spirituality and Philosophy: India is home to 4 of the major religions of the world namely Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and
Jainism. Since the times of the vedic and later vedic age, there existed both vedic (Nyaya, Vedanta etc) as well as nonvedic school of thoughts (Charvaka, Buddhism etc.).
3. Caste Diversity : Caste system owes its origin to chaturvarna theory which later on became heredity and rigid. Conventionally, there are four varnas Brahmins,
Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras.
4. Language Diversity: Peopleís Linguistic Survey of India, there are 780 languages and 86 scripts in India. It is often said in India, that the language changes for every 4 miles.
5. Family Diversity: While north India mostly have a patriarchal form of family, matriarchal form is also found in Tribes and Nairs of Kerala. Joint family, Nuclear family, single parent family,livein relation, LGBT Communitie.
6. Food Habits, Dress Code, Music, Festivals:
7. Political diversity: There has been a sustained debate about whether socioculture diversity is a boon or bane for the society :
As a boon:
1. Innate to human nature: Diversity comes naturally to humans. It forms the very basis of our existence.
2. Opening and broadening of mental horizon; Intellectual growth. Amartya Sen Book ëArgumentative Indianí Ancient Indian society during the vedic times promoted debates and discussion through the institution of sabha and samiti.
3. Recourse to debates and discussion for solving disputes: Case study by Jean Dreze and Reetika Khera concludes that society with higher sex ratio has lower crime rate; India approach to problem of national integration; Problem of NorthEast insurgency etc
4. Economic growth: According to IMF chief Christine Lagarde, India can increase its GDP by 27% on account of greater participation of women in labour force.
5. Prudent and effective solution to modern day problems: Potential of Yoga has now been acknowledged globally for enhancing concentration, fitness etc.;
Celebration of International Yoga day.
6. Impetus to foreign policy: Role of Indian Diaspora who are recognized for their diverse views and ability to integrate with other cultures. For e.g. Sundar Pichai
as CEO of Google or Satya Nadella as CEO of Microsoft.
7. Development of Syncretic culture/composite culture: For e.g Gujarat girls from Muslim community practise Yoga for coping with fasts during the month of Ramzan; R

ఎస్సేలో అడగదగ్గ ప్రశ్నలు

1. Will the 21st century be India’s century?
2. Privacy vs Transparency: Transparency is for Government, not for citizens
3. Globalisation is dead, Long live localisation
4. Multilateralism vs Rationalism. Which is good for world economy?
5. Nuclear weapons ensure peace on Earth
6. Is growing level of competition good for the children?
7. Social media and violence
8. Apolitical education- the need of the hour
9 ‘Malpractices in examinations threaten the future of the Indian education system’

జనరల్‌ స్టడీస్‌లో....
జనరల్‌ స్టడీస్‌ పేపర్‌-1: దీనిలో ప్రశ్నలు ఒకదానితో ఒకటి అనుసంధానంగా ఉండి, అభ్యర్థి భిన్న రంగాల సమన్వయ విధానాన్ని పరీక్షిస్తాయి. సొసైటీకి సంబంధించిన ప్రశ్నలు సమకాలీన అంశాలకు సంబంధించివుంటాయి. ఇతర సబ్జెక్టుల ప్రశ్నలకంటే జాగ్రఫీ ప్రశ్నలకు మార్కులు ఎక్కువ వస్తాయి.
జనరల్‌ స్టడీస్‌- పేపర్‌-2: సుప్రీంకోర్టు నిర్ణయాలు, పార్లమెంటులో చర్చించిన తాజా అంశాలు ప్రశ్నలుగా రావొచ్చు.
జనరల్‌ స్టడీస్‌ పేపర్‌-3: ఈ పేపర్లో ఇండియన్‌ ఎకానమీకి మిగతా సబ్జెక్టులకంటే ప్రాధాన్యం లభిస్తుందని అంచనా.
జనరల్‌ స్టడీస్‌ పేపర్‌-4: ఎథిక్స్‌, ఇంటిగ్రిటీ, ఆప్టిట్యూడ్‌ అంశాలుండే ఈ పేపర్‌ గత ఏడాది మాదిరే ఉండవచ్చు.

Expected Questions in Civil Services Main exam

PAPER - 1

1. India has ranked 133rd in the global list of happiest countries. India’s ranks far behind from neighboring countries such as Pakistan, Nepal and China. What do you think are the reasons for this low ranking and what measures would you suggest improving the situation?

2. Enumerate the key issues faced by working women in contemporary Indian society and the steps taken by the government to address them. Also, critically examine the key features of Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act 2017.

3. Do you think giving constitutional status to the National Commission for women can embolden the efforts of empowerment?

4. State the factors which have led to India being categorized as a water-stressed nation. Also, identify sustainable solutions for averting the crisis at hand.

5. India is a classic example of unuse, misuse, underuse of water resources rather than scarcity. Discuss.

6. Monsoon flooding is the cost of runaway development... Do you agree with the view? Suggest measures for prevention and management of Monsoon Flooding

7. "Robert Clive founded the British Raj, Lord Macaulay sowed the seeds of its end" Critically comment

PAPER - 2

1. Outline the arguments in favor and against the creation of smaller states.

2. In 1951-52, 1962 and 1967 General Elections, elections were held simultaneously for the Lok Sabha and Assembly. Now there is a debate on reviving the system. How far do you think that this is feasible? Substantiate your answer.

3. Following 70 years of Independence, there is an increasing debate in the national discourse on the efficacy of Parliamentary System in achieving India's tryst with destiny. Do you think that a Presidential system of government could work in the Indian context? What are the Pros and cons compared with the parliamentary system

4. Direct Benefit Transfer has been recently seen as a panacea for all ills plaguing good governance. What are the possible hurdles in implementing the principles of electronic cash payments?

5. The 42nd Constitutional Amendment transferred a few subjects from the State list to the Concurrent list. However, with the current discourse on decentralization, there is a need to reconsider some of these. Clarify.

6. Some communities in the North-East of India have experienced persistent displacement due to ethnic violence. Discuss how this ethnic violence has affected the development of North East India and steps necessary for successful repatriation and for long-term solution.

7. "to put an end to the continuous misuse of the office of the governor in a manner that threatens both federalism and democracy, we have to rethink the role of the Governor in the constitutional scheme". In the light of recent debate on the relevance and powers of the office of the governor of states in India, critically discuss the statement

8. Progressive centralization of power within the office of the chief justice has not been accompanied by a parallel strengthening of the accountability of this office. In the light of the "Master of Roster" controversy, critically comment

9. Issues relating to `Son’ preference are a matter for the Indian society as a whole to reflect upon … Do you think Development is the antidote? What measures would you suggest to ensure a healthy gender balance?

10. “Child hood is not merely about age, but a value integral to life that keeps us simple, spontaneous and transparent. Many people either take pity on children or use them for their own benefits. To create a developed safe and better world we have to create a children friendly society” says Nobel Peace Laureate Kailash Satyarthi. Suggest measures to take his vision forward.

11. India is blessed with several World religions and no single religious establishment can be its secular edifice. Therefore instead of keeping religion out of politics, we sensibly give equal respect to all religions. Comment in light of the recent developments.

PAPER - 3

1. “The GST is a hugely beneficial reform which would cut both transaction cost and double taxation and its long term benefits far outweigh the likely short term impacts”. Do you agree with the view? Outline the changes that have been made recently to make it a Good and Simple Tax.

2. Critically examine the recommendations of the NK Singh Committee on the FRBM Act

3. Examine the effectiveness of monetary transmission mechanism in the recent past? Suggest measures to improve the transmission to enable the economy to get better capital flow.

4. What is contract farming? Critically analyse the features of the draft Model Contract Farming Act, 2018.

5. India's population pyramid is expected to bulge across the 15-59 age group over the next decade. This demographic advantage is predicted to last only until 2040. India therefore has a very narrow time frame to harness its demographic dividend and to overcome its skill shortages. Suggest measures for harnessing the demographic dividend in the short span of time.

6. Chinese ambitions and action draws Indian security calculation into a security dilemma. Discuss the dilemma faced by India and measures taken to address the same.

7. Discuss the significant role played by the ISRO in minimizing the space between technology and rural citizens.

మార్కులెలా ఇస్తారు?
జనరల్‌స్టడీస్‌లోని నాలుగు పేపర్లలో పాయింట్ల ఆధారంగా మార్కులను ఇస్తారు. ఎన్ని ఎక్కువ పాయింట్లు రాస్తే అన్ని ఎక్కువ మార్కులు వచ్చే వీలుంటుంది. ఉదాహరణకు- ‘What are the ecological impacts of large dams?’అనే ప్రశ్నను అడిగారనుకోండి. అభ్యర్థులకు సాధారణంగా భూకంపాలు, జనావాసాల తరలింపు లాంటి ఐదారు పాయింట్లు స్ఫురిస్తాయి. కానీ మరెన్నో పాయింట్లు రాయటానికి వీలుంటుంది. సమగ్రతను సాధించే అన్ని పాయింట్లనూ రాయటం ఎవరికీ సాధ్యం కాకపోవచ్చు. కానీ గరిష్ఠంగా ఎక్కువ పాయింట్లు రాయటానికి ప్రయత్నిస్తే మార్కులు ఎక్కువ వస్తాయి.

Q: WHAT ARE THE ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF LARGE DAMS ?
A: Experience from all over the world has shown that large dams have major environmental and ecological impacts. Some of these are listed below:

Upstream (including reservoir)
(1) soil erosion;
(2) micro-climatic changes;
(3) loss of forests, flora, and fauna;
(4) changes in floral and faunal density and diversity;
(5) changes in fisheries, especially on spawning grounds;
(6) chain effects on catchment area due to constructions, displacement, etc.;
(7) landslips, siltation and sedimentation;
(8) breeding of vectors in reservoir and increase in related diseases;
(9) seismicity;
(10) loss of non-forest land;
(11) water logging around reservoir ; and
(12) growth of weeds.

Downstream (including command area)
(1) water logging and salinity;
(2) reduced water flow and deposition in river, with related impacts on aquatic ecosystem, flora and fauna;
(3) micro- climatic changes;
(4) flash-floods;
(5) salt-water ingress at river mouth;
(6) changes in coastal ecosystem (e.g., mangroves);
(7) loss of land fertility along river; and
(8) vector breeding and increase in related diseases

20% అంశాలతో 80% విజయం
* టాపర్ల మార్కులను ఓసారి విశ్లేషించండి. జనరల్‌ ఎస్సే, ఆప్షనల్‌లో సాధించిన అధిక మార్కులే వారి విజయానికి కారణమని అర్థమవుతుంది. ఇదే ధోరణి ఈ ఏడాదీ కొనసాగనుందని అంచనా. ఈ రెండు అంశాలపైనా దృష్టి సారించండి. ఈ సందర్భంలో 80/20 సూత్రం ఉపయోగపడుతుంది. దీని ప్రకారం 20% అంశాలు పరీక్షలో మీ 80% విజయానికి కారణమవుతాయి. అంటే ఎస్సే-ఆప్షనల్‌ లేదా ఎథిక్స్‌-ఆప్షనల్‌.. మీ విజయాన్ని నిర్ధారించేది మాత్రం ఈ రెండు సబ్జెక్టులే.
* ఆప్షనల్‌కు సంబంధించి ప్రశ్నలను రాయడం సాధన చేయాలి. వాటిని అనుభవజ్ఞులతో మూల్యాంకనం చేయించుకోవాలి. ఆప్షనల్‌ అనేది స్పెషలైజ్డ్‌ సబ్జెక్టు కాబట్టి దానిలో వివిధ నిపుణులు తమ శైలిలో వివిధ సలహాలు ఇవ్వగలుగుతారు. ఆ సలహాలు చాలావరకూ ఉపయోగపడతాయి. కానీ జనరల్‌ స్టడీస్‌ విషయంలో మాత్రం ఈ పద్ధతి పనికిరాదు. ఒక్కొక్కరు ఒక్కోలా ఇచ్చే సలహాలు అంతగా ప్రయోజనకరం కాదు.
* మీడియాలో విశ్లేషణాత్మకంగా చర్చిస్తున్న అంశాలను గుర్తించాలి. వార్తాపత్రికల నుంచి తాజాగా నిర్వహించిన వివిధ సర్వీసెస్‌ పరీక్షల్లో అడిగిన అంశాలను ఎంచుకోవాలి. వాటిలో ముఖ్యమైన వాటిని గుర్తించి, పాయింట్లను నోట్‌ చేసుకోవాలి.
* ఎథిక్స్‌లో థియరీ ప్రశ్నలు, కేస్‌స్టడీస్‌లను రాయడం సాధన చేయాలి. థియరీ ప్రశ్నలు కొంచెం విసుగును తెప్పిస్తాయి. కాబట్టి వాటిని వదిలేయాలనిపిస్తుంటుంది. ఏదేమైనా అవి ముందుగానే అంచనా వేసేలా ఉంటాయి కాబట్టి వాటిని విస్మరించకూడదు.

ఈ పొరపాట్లు చేయకుంటే సరి!
టైమ్‌ టేబుల్‌ పాటించకపోవటం: చాలామంది సివిల్స్‌ అభ్యర్థులు టైమ్‌టేబుల్‌ను తయారు చేసుకుంటారు. అయితే కొందరు దాన్ని సిద్ధమైతే చేసుకుంటారు గానీ పాటించరు. అలా జరగడానికి ..అది ప్రాక్టికల్‌ టైమ్‌టేబుల్‌ కాకుండా కేవలం థియరిటికల్‌ అవటమే కారణం! ఏ సబ్జెక్టు ఎప్పుడు, ఎన్ని గంటలు, ఎన్ని రోజులు అనేది నిర్దిష్టంగా నిర్ణయించుకోకుండా ‘రోజుకు 20 గంటల ప్రిపరేషన్‌’ అంటూ అస్పష్టంగా రాసుకోవటం వల్ల ఉపయోగం ఉండదు. ప్రతివారం టైమ్‌ టేబుల్‌ను సమీక్షించుకుని, ఆచరణయోగ్యం కాకపోతే దాన్ని మార్చుకోవచ్చు. మార్చినదాన్ని కచ్చితంగా అనుసరించే ప్రయత్నం చేయాలి.

కొన్ని సబ్జెక్టులకే అతి ప్రాధాన్యం: అభ్యర్థుల్లో ప్రతి ఒక్కరికీ కొన్ని సబ్జెక్టుల పట్ల అనురక్తి ఉంటుంది. ఆ ఆసక్తి వల్ల వాటి పఠనానికి ఎక్కువ సమయం కేటాయించటం కూడా మామూలే. డిగ్రీలో చదివినవాటితో సంబంధమున్న సబ్జెక్టులు సులువనీ, వాటిలో ఎక్కువ మార్కులు వస్తాయనీ నమ్ముతుంటారు. ఇవన్నీ అపోహలే. మార్కుల ప్రాధాన్యానికి అనుగుణంగా సబ్జెక్టులోని అంశాలకు సమయం కేటాయించుకోవటం సముచితం. ఈ ‘బిజినెస్‌ అప్రోచ్‌’ పాటించటమే తెలివైన మార్గం!

ఆప్షనల్‌లో కొన్ని అంశాలు చదవకపోవటం: కొందరు అభ్యర్థులు ఆప్షనల్లో అన్ని అంశాలనూ చదవరు. కొన్ని అధ్యాయాలు ‘బోర్‌’ కొడుతున్నాయనో, ఆ టాపిక్స్‌లో ప్రశ్నలు రాకపోవచ్చు అని భావించో వాటిని వదిలేస్తుంటారు. అయితే నిజానికి ప్రతి ఒక్క అధ్యాయం నుంచీ ప్రశ్నలు తప్పకుండా వస్తాయి. అందుకే ఆప్షనల్‌ను విహంగ వీక్షణంలా స్థూలంగా కాకుండా సూక్ష్మ స్థాయిలో కేంద్రీకృతంగా అధ్యయనం చేయటం సరైన పని.

సమయ నిర్వహణను నిర్లక్ష్యం చేయటం: నిర్దిష్ట సమయంలో సమగ్రంగా, వేగంగా రాసే నేర్పు చాలా ముఖ్యం. ఇది సాధనతోనే సాధ్యమవుతుంది. నమూనా పరీక్షలను రాస్తే సమయ నిర్వహణ తెలుస్తుంది. స్వీయలోపాలు అర్థమవుతాయి. సమయాన్ని కొన్ని ప్రశ్నలకే వృథా చేయకుండా రాయటం అభ్యాసమవుతుంది.

అన్ని ప్రశ్నలకూ జవాబులు రాయకపోవటం: ‘అన్ని ప్రశ్నలనూ అటెమ్ట్‌ చేయాలి’ అని చెప్పటం తేలికే కావొచ్చు. కానీ దాన్ని ఆచరించటం అభ్యర్థులకు అసాధ్యం మాత్రం కాదు. ఎక్కువ ప్రశ్నలకు జవాబులు రాసినపుడు ఎక్కువ మార్కులే రావటానికి అవకాశం ఉంది. అందుకే.. ఉన్న సమయాన్ని నిర్దిష్టంగా ఒక్కో ప్రశ్నకు కేటాయించుకుని, ఎక్కువ ప్రశ్నలకు జవాబులు రాసేలా జాగ్రత్తపడాలి. నమూనా పేపర్లు రాస్తే ఇది చక్కగా అలవాటవుతుంది.

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Posted on 19-8-2018