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Specializations in Civil Engineering

As students take to new streams in Engineering the number of people who have taken up and continue to practice civil engineers has fallen. However contrary to student expectations civil engineering with its specializations continues to be in demand in many countries. The development and constructions of modern, efficient and environment friendly infrastructure is fueling demand for people who have competencies in this field.

 

Environmental Engineering
Environmental engineering has emerged as a specialization with the objective of ensuring that societal development and the use of water, land and air resources are sustainable. This is achieved by managing these resources in such a way that environmental pollution and degradation is minimized.

 

The activities of environmental engineers include planning, design, construction and operation of water and wastewater treatment facilities in municipalities and industries, modeling and analysis of surface water and groundwater quality, design of soil and remediation systems, planning for the disposal and reuse of wastewaters and sludge’s, and the collection, transport, processing, recovery and disposal of solid wastes according to accepted engineering practices.
 

Environmental engineers play an important role in environmental protection, because engineering solutions are required to meet the environmental standards set by legislation. Environment engineers can build their careers in Consulting firms, municipalities, government agencies, industries, non-governmental organizations and large private sector construction, research institutions and universities. This program is open to students with civil or chemical engineering background. Most universities do not require GRE however top universities expect GRE of 290+
 

 

Geotechnical Engineering
Geotechnical engineering is the study of the behavior of soils when load is applied and interactions it has with water. This knowledge is applied to the design of foundations, retaining walls, earth dams, clay liners, and geo-synthetics for waste containment. Recent computational and computer advances are extending our ability to predict the behavior of soil and soil-water systems under a wide variety of conditions.

 

The role of geotechnical engineers ranges from the design of foundations, temporary excavation support, route selection for railways and highways, designing landfill for disposal of wastes and groundwater contamination. In recent years, the activities of geotechnical engineers has expanded into Geo-environmental engineering with the designing of solutions for cleaning-up of contaminated soils and groundwater sites
 

Geotechnical engineers can build a career in resource industries (like mining, petroleum), specialized construction (like bridges, canals, dams, road and railway routes), military, consultants, public utilities, governmental agencies and environmental agencies
This specialization is available only in few universities GRE is not mandatory for admission.
 

 

Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering
Hydraulic and Water resources engineering is the study of the distribution and circulation of water linking the earth's atmosphere, land and oceans and the application of fluid mechanics to water flowing in an isolated environment (pipe, pump) or in an open channel (river, lake, ocean). It is applied in the management of the urban water supply, the design of urban storm-sewer systems, and flood forecasting, design of hydraulic structures, such as sewage conduits, dams and breakwaters, the management of waterways, such as erosion protection and flood protection, and environmental management, such as prediction of the mixing and transport of pollutants in surface water.

 

In recent years concern for preserving the environment and meeting the needs of developing countries has increased the importance of water resources engineering. Job opportunities in hydrology and water resources are quite varied. Positions are available in large and small consulting firms, large construction companies and at all levels of government, geology and geographical information systems (GIS) support organizations, university and research labs This specialization is offered by few universities and demand is very high therefore GRE requirements have gone up in recent years. Students should have GRE of 298+ and academic of 60%+.
 

 

Structural Engineering
Structural engineering involves conceptualisation, analysis, design and construction of structures that can withstand stresses and pressures from internal and external forces. It includes the study of the distribution of stresses that a load produces on a solid element and the calculation of strains, assembling elements, such as beams and columns, into a structure that will resist both static and dynamic loads, such as gravity, wind, snow and earthquakes. With the expanded use of reinforced plastics and polymers the scope of materials has widened beyond steel and concrete.

 

 

While typical civil engineering structures include large buildings, bridges and dams, graduates with a specialization in structural engineering may also be concerned with designing the structures of machinery, vehicles, aircraft and spacecraft. Now rehabilitation of existing structures has also become an important task. Employment opportunities include work with consulting structural engineers, construction companies, building development companies, architects, engineering departments of private corporations, aircraft and aerospace related companies, auto component manufacturers, heritage maintenance teams, public utilities, and government agencies. Almost all universities offer structural engineering. Students need at least 60% in their bachelors and 295+ in GRE.
 

 

Transportation Engineering
Transportation engineers plan, design, build, operate and maintain transport systems, such as to provide for the safe, efficient and convenient movement of people and goods. Professional activities include design and operation of road and transits, Location, construction and operation of railroads, seaways and airports, at both regional and national levels. transportation engineers faces the challenge of balancing development of network links and major terminals to satisfy transportation demands, with regard for land-use, environmental, congestion and other impacts of these facilities.

 

Employment opportunities for transport engineers are available in the public sector with transportation ministries, regional and municipal roads, traffic and transit agencies other development departments like port and airport authorities and the private sector with engineering consultants, trucking, railroad and airline companies, vehicle manufacturers and contractors for execution of projects. Transportation engineers also participate in integrated town planning which not only includes road and rail networks but also lighting, terminals traffic signaling, walkways and other related services.
 

There are moderate number of universities offing this course. In order to make complicated model universities prefer bright candidates and look for students with 70% in acedemics and 300+ in GRE.
 

 

Construction Management
Construction management or construction project management (CPM) is the overall planning, coordination, and control of a project from inception to completion. Work of construction Manager fall into categories- Project Management Planning, Cost Management, Time Management, Quality Management, Contract Administration, Safety Management, and CM Professional Practice which includes specific activities like defining the responsibilities and management structure of the project management team, organizing and leading by implementing project controls, defining roles and responsibilities and developing communication protocols, and identifying elements of project design and construction likely to give rise to disputes and claims.

 

Graduates have a variety of employment opportunities. Potential employers include general contractors, real estate developers, sub contractors, construction management firms and architectural engineering firms, quantity surveying with government departments and consultants. They also have the opportunity to start up their own businesses in this field.
 

Few universities offer this course. Since this is a management cum engineering degree universities prefer candidates with work experience in the relevant field. Only few universities offer this course to freshers. Private universities have taken advantage of demand in this course and are offering it at lower cut offs. Students usually need 60% in their bachelors to get an admission.
 

 

Construction Engineering
Construction engineering is an interdisciplinary stream between civil (learning the design aspects) and site management. it deals with the designing, planning, construction and management of infrastructures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and utilities. Construction engineers may be involved in financial planning, working with subcontractors, and interacting with clients on an ongoing basis.

 

Construction engineers can work in overseeing the construction of airports, malls, schools, manufacturing facilities, highways, high rise structures, water treatment plants and much more. Recent graduates with a degree in construction engineering may find themselves planning a new project, organizing work staff, setting up schedules, and considering safety issues. Their primary role is to deliver a project on time, within budget, and of the desired quality.
 

This course is also not available in many universities. Students who do not have work experience prefer this over construction management. Universities usually look for students with academics of 70%+ and GRE of 298+.

Specializations in Electronics Engineering

More than 1.2 million engineers work in America today, making engineering the nation's second largest profession.US companies prefer to hire engineers who have graduated from accredited programs in the US. Some of the reasons for choosing students who have graduated from US over others are that employers are not usually aware of the quality standards in education followed in other countries hence they rely on universities within USA that are accredited and meet high standards in quality of education.
 

A career post completion of masters in electronics and communications based specialisations in the US offers the potential for a challenging, rewarding, and lucrative career. The continued expansion of electronics and telecommunications technology throughout the world and especially in USA has made a Master's of Science (M.S) in various related fields a highly sought after degree. There are several specialisations which a student can choose from.
Masters in Science with Specialization in Telecommunications

 

Telecommunication is a diversified field of engineering thatincludes and integrates topics ranging from electronics, civil, structural, and electrical engineering. It also includes subjects covering a little bit of accounting and a lot of project management. The role of telecom engineers isto providethe best possible solutions for good quality voice and high-speed data services.
 

With the expansion of telecom industry and integration with data and internet technologies, a wide variety of career options are available to people who have completed an M.S in Telecommunications depending on the focus of the program. They can take up role as IT managers who organize, implement and constantly improve the IT operations.Companies rely on the IT department to keep their networks running, databases and other important software working and backed up and protected .A Telecommunication Specialist designs, installs and maintains communications networks. Like phone systems, Internet, wireless technologies, satellite and GPS systems.
 

Overall admission in electronics and communications stream in USA is tough due to high competition. It is preferable to have an Engineering percentage of 60%+. While some universities offer admission without GRE many of them require at least 298.  Analytical writing score is also usually important. Minimum required score is 3.0.  At top universities academic requirements also goes above 70% with no backlogs and GRE requirement exceeding 305 with analytical score of 3.5.
 

 

Digital Signal and Image Processing
Digital Signal Processing(DSP) and Digital Signal and Image Processing (DSIP) have a wide variety of applications ranging from television, radio transmission and receivers to any applications where signals need to be processed. DSP has many advantages over analogue processing. It is able to provide far better levels of signal processing than is possible with analogue systems.

 

Digital Signal and Image Processing is at the forefront of information technology. It forms the basis for a growing variety of applications including medical diagnosis in the health care industry, remote sensing in various consumer, industrial, governance, defence and military industry, geophysical prospecting in mining and exploration, space exploration, molecular biology, microscopy and machine vision in medical and scientific research, and particularly in all types of manufacturing industries.
 

Graduates in this option choose from a wide range of careers embracing telecommunications, the automotive industry, medical imaging and, again, software houses and industrial research where demand for skills is high. The role of a person who is a specialist in DSIP would be to develop, maintain, manage and improve systems in any of the chosen fields. As the demand for automation rises there is constant need for improving existing systems.
 

This course is widely available in many US universities. Students require a minimum of 60%+ in bachelors. Some universities do not require GRE scores but many expect at least 298.
 

 

VLSI Design
Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating integrated circuits by combining thousands of transistors into a single chip. VLSI began in the 1970s when complex semiconductor and communication technologies were being developed. The microprocessor is a VLSI device. Structured VLSI design is a modular methodology for saving microchip area by minimizing the interconnect fabrics area. This is obtained by repetitive arrangement of rectangular macro blocks which can be interconnected using wiring by abutment.

 

There are a variety of career opportunities in product companies, design services companies and electronic design automation (EDA) companies. Product and application domains of VLSI include mobile and consumer electronics, computing, telecommunications and networking, data processing, automotive, healthcare and industrial applications.
 

Some good segments include industrial and automotive microcontrollers, wireless infrastructure, consumer digital TV and handheld devices, and computing/storage infrastructure. Emerging areas include smart-energy product development, medical telemetry application, and high-end application processor development.
 

The VLSI industry has an added attraction of being a strong domain for patents filing, invention disclosures and applied research. This course is widely available in many US universities. Acedemic requirements are flexible and students with average profiles can also find opening in this stream.
 

 

Embedded Systems
Embedded systems engineer is a relatively new classification that merges electronics engineering and computer science. Embedded systems are processing cores that act as microcontrollers dedicated to specific tasks. Design engineers can optimize it to reduce the size and cost of the product and increase the reliability and performance. Physically, embedded systems range from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players, to large fixed installations like traffic lights, factory controllers. These systemscan be fairly simple like a single microcontroller chipor extremely complex with multiple units, peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure. Embedded systems are now being mass-produced and benefiting from economies of scale.

 

A career in embedded systems is one of the better career options available for students today. Embedded systems engineerscan work for both technology that touches the life of the common manliking writing software that determines the controls of washers, cars, dryers, etc as well as  work on high-end systems ranging from robots to factory assembly lines. Embedded systems engineers are most likely to get placed in companies dealing with the engineering requirements of automobiles,companies that build embedded systems for the armed forces of a country, companies that specialize in building embedded systems for controlling railway signals, mills, petrochemical plants, pharmaceutical factories, bottling plants, etc. Embedded systems are also used in monitors, scanners, machines used for chemotherapy, diagnostic equipments, pacemakers, ventilators, etc. Therefore a specialist in embedded systems can have a career in a very wide ranging set of industries.
This course is widely available in many US universities. Students require atleast 60% in bachelors with GRE of at least 29.
 

 

Radio Frequency /Microwaves and Electromagnets
Radio frequency, Microwaves, Nano waves and electromagnetsis a highly specialized field falling typically in one of two areas;
1) Providing or controlling coverage with some kind of antenna/transmission system and
2) Generating or receiving signals to or from that transmission system to other communications electronics or controls.

 

To produce quality results, an in-depth knowledge of mathematics, physics, general electronics theory as well as specialized training in areas such as wave propagation, impedance transformations, filters, micro-strip circuit board design, etc. may be required.It covers aspects of applied electromagnetics including antennas, radio wave propagation, microwave and radio frequency (RF) circuits and transmission structures, optical components and lasers, and engineering acoustics.
 

RF and Microwave Engineering has been one of the fastest growth areas of the past decade and is likely to remain a technology in demand as its applications cover critical areas such as radar, remote sensing, remote control, sensors, navigation, surveillance, electronic warfare, radiometers, plasma research, and imaging.
 

Career options for those graduating in these fields can opt for industries relating to Intelligent transport systems, Automotive and aerospacetechnologies, Mobile communication, Sensors for health, environmentand other automation industry, Biological and bio-chemical interfaces, Health care and Biomems.  Fresh graduates in this field are likely to be placed in industries such as telecommunications networks, fibre optics, robotics, Component designing for various industries. Since This specialisation is available in few good universities only academic requirements are slightly higher. Students need 65%+ with no backlogs and GRE score of 298+ to get admission.
 

 

Wireless Communications
Wireless communication is used when the use of electrical cord is almost impossible. This technology has permitted us to expand our horizons in communication beyond what we thought would be possible.  Wireless communication uses energy sources to transfer information. As an example radio frequency, infra red light, laser light, acoustic energy are some of the sources of energy used in wireless communication. Therefore study of wireless technology requires an understanding of many of these separate fields.

 

Wireless technology is now been used in a wide range of fieldsranging fromear pieces, TV remote, cellular phones and modems to Wi-Fi and long range guidance systems. Wireless communication has helped us reach new levels of communication heights. It would be impossible to communicate using satellites if this technology was not available. The technology is now being used to communicate with astronauts in space and submarines which are hundreds of meters below sea level. Wireless has truly become the window in future communication.
 

Graduates from this field can build a career in fields like medical equipment, telecommunications, manufacturing, Fibre optic specialists, laser specialists, automotive technologiesand in buildingintelligent transport systems.
This specialisation is available in few universities. The cut off’s are also usually higher with 298+in GRE and 70%+ in bachelors.
 

 

Control Systems
Control engineering focuses on the modelling of a diverse range of dynamic systems and the design of controllers that will cause these systems to behave in the desired manner. To implement such controllers electrical engineers may use electrical circuits, digital signal processors, microcontrollers and PLCs (Programmable Logic Controllers). Therefore study of wireless technology requires an understanding of many of these separate fields. The role of a control systems engineer is development leading to integration of functions for sensing, monitoring and controlling products and systems.

 

Students how graduate from this course can contribute to the development leading to integration of functions for sensing, monitoring and controlling products and systems. There are substantial industrial needs, ranging from small embedded devices to large control systems for production or electric power distribution,flight and propulsion systems of commercial airliners, cruise control in many modern automobiles. It also plays an important role in industrial automation and medical and scientific research.
This course is widely available in many US universities. Acedemic requirements are flexible and students with average profiles can also find opening in this stream. Students can also get admission without GRE.

Specializations in Computer Science

The areas for specialization within computer science are extremely wide and fast evolving and new specializations continue to evolve. New advancements in computer hardware and software have helped in expanding the scope of applications to areas and users not earlier planned for. This has opened up and continues to open more and more areas where there is a need for such technologically competent people. While new specializations keep evolving we have presented some popular areas of computer science offered by many U.S. universities. These specializations may be offered as degree programs at some universities or as areas of concentration within graduate computer science departments.
 

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
AI is a complex, highly interdisciplinary branch of computer science that attempts to incorporate the principles of human intelligence and reasoning into computing systems. AI research is concerned with modeling all facets of human intelligence. It involves creating computer systems that have the ability to plan (automated deduction), adapt to different situations (machine learning), acquire human-like senses (machine vision and natural-language processing), and effect changes to the environment (robotics).

Most AI graduates find a job relevant to their degree. They can find work in a range of professions, both managerial and technical. Sectors that employ people who have graduated from this stream are information technology, data mining, speech and language technology, intelligent systems, diagnosis and quality control, fraud detection and biometric systems. You will also be qualified to work in banking or provide support for the process industry, biomedicine and bioinformatics, robotics and traffic systems.

Many students armed with Master’s degree in Artificial Intelligence also take on the path of further research work as a PhD.

This course is widely available in US universities and students with average profiles can also get admission.
 

COMPUTER GRAPHICS
This specialization brings together the logical mind of a computer graduate with the creative bent of an artist to create precision visuals.  It relates to using graphic design and the visual arts in combination with video and computer technologies to produce multi dimensional graphic images. The content and emphasis of computer graphics programs vary greatly depending on the level of study and the department through which the program is offered. The Masters programs focuses on more theoretical, complex areas needed to use the skill professionally in industry.

Computer graphics technology professionals use their knowledge and technical skills in graphic design and animation to design and create layouts, Web pages and multimedia productions. They can get roles like computer game designers, computer animators, Graphics designers and production artists. Industries that regularly hire professionals with this background are advertising, printing, publishing film making or design firm. IT companies that provide support and build applications for government agencies, military training departments and private companies are also major recruiters.

This Specialization is available in some good universities in USA only therefore academic requirement is slightly higher and students require 65% in bachelors and 298 in GRE.

 
COMPUTER ENGINEERING
Computer Engineering is a broad discipline that incorporates the fields of computer science and electrical engineering. Computer engineering emphasizes the theory, design, and development of computers and computer-related technology including both hardware and software. Graduate programs provide opportunities for advanced study in computer engineering. Computer engineers are responsible for designing, developing, implementing and testing computer-based hardware and software, including the components that are found inside computer equipment, as well as the actual devices that contain the computers and the software that runs on those machines. They may also design networks that connect computer systems, and work on integrating software programs with computer hardware.

Other than the IT industry computer engineers can find roles in telecommunications, manufacturing, transportation, product development for multiple industries like healthcare, energy, automobile, aerospace, electronics, consumer products, defense establishments and precision machinery. In many cases the role of computer engineers is not visible particularly when they work with other engineers to develop automation systems for other industries. This course is widely available in US universities and very popular among Indian students. Only students with GRE of 300 and academic of 65%+ can get admission.
 

COGNITIVE SCIENCE
Cognitive science is a branch of computer science that is concerned with understanding, simulating, and enhancing both natural and artificial intelligence. It is a highly interdisciplinary stream and draws from research in artificial intelligence, psychology, anthropology, linguistics, philosophy, neuroscience, and engineering. It is usually offered as specialization at the graduate level only to those who have some background to any of the relevant streams. This field explores the brain and the mechanisms and activities that affect thinking, information processing and learning. Thus it integrates research with applications and focuses on development and optimization of language acquisition, mathematical comprehension and behavior formation.

A major in cognitive science offers opportunities both managerial and technical for individuals to work in different industries, such as information systems, government agencies, Software development companies, clinical research institutes, publishing and telecommunications. It also has a big role and application in the education industry using human factor design, linguistic analysis and applied human-computer interaction to help create interactive educational solutions, instructional computer games, courseware and Web-based learning applications.

The Cognitive Science specialization might lead to a career in human factor design or applied human-computer interaction.

This Specialization is available in some good universities in USA only. Therefore academic requirement is slightly higher and students require 65%+ in bachelors and 298+ in GRE.
 
 
COMPUTER NETWORKS
This is study of the principles of communication between computers. It emphasizes on the design of networks between computers like local area networks (LANs), which connect computers within a small geographical area, and wide area networks (WANs), which use telephone lines or radio waves to connect computers thousands of miles apart. However with the advancement of technology it now also includes networks connecting various devices like hand held devices, mobile phones and other equipment being used as devices for interaction with the computer systems.

Almost all large and medium size organizations in addition to IT and telecom companies hire network specialists to manage their internal networks. The role is particularly critical in industries where network security and uptime are critical to business. Some of the roles taken up by network professionals are Network Administrators, Network Designer, Network Engineer or Analyst, Network Trainer, Information Systems Manager, Network Scientist, Project Managers, Computer Networking Support Specialists, and Network Security Specialist.
This is the most commonly available course among Comp Sc specializations in USA. Most students can find appropriate universities that suit their profile.
 

ROBOTICS
Robotics is a branch of computer science that applies artificial intelligence and engineering concepts to create and program mechanical devices (robots) that are able to perform a variety of tasks including some previously performed by humans. There are several specialties to choose from within the field of robotics. Some of these include machine automation, medical robotics, cybernetics, quantum mechanical systems, air traffic management and a variety of other areas that utilize robots to make work processes easier for humans.

There is an increasing need for engineers who can design, build, and maintain complex, automated, and intelligent systems of today and of the future. Graduates in Robotics  can conduct research and develop new and advanced technologies like unmanned vehicles, automated construction machinery, mining equipment, process control in factories, computer vision related products, simulation software, advanced sensor systems, and wearable systems.

Robotics graduates can find roles in various industries including electronics, automotive, agriculture, manufacturing and machine automation, quantum mechanical systems, air traffic management and transportation, surgery and medical robotics, weaponry, safety and cybernetics, research and the mass production of consumer goods.

A Master degree in Robotics opens up doors for PhD studies and an academic career in robotics.

This is a niche program offered by few universities in USA. Admission is highly competitive and students without backlogs, high grades and high GRE scores are only likely to get admission.
 

SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
A Masters in Software Engineering is designed for individuals who wish to expand their career within this field. It provides students with the skill sets and in-depth knowledge related to computer science, computer technology, management, and engineering economics. It seeks to build cost- effective development and modification of computer software components. This program is meant for those who want to progress in their career in this field only. 

Since this is a fast growing field and the scope is continuously expanding a graduate can find openings in not only the software industry but in other industries which employ professionals to build and manage their requirements internally. Industries that are currently hiring software engineers are, aerospace, defense, telecommunications, pharmaceuticals, consumer products, biomedical, intelligence, nonprofit, government, finance, insurance, health care, automobile, telecom, defense and gaming. it also opens up doors for consulting opportunities as technology evolves and gets more ingrained into our everyday life. This course is fairly widely available in US universities. This course is also very common among Indian students studying at US universities. Entry requirements vary based on university and some universities also accept students without GRE scores.
 
 
COMPUTER PROGRAMMING
Computer programming  is the process of designing, writing, testing, debugging, and maintaining the source code of computer programs. This source code is written in one or more programming languages. It is one of the most open-ended and commonly pursued specializations. This kind of study also involves testing computer programs for problems ("debugging" them). This stream is sometimes used interchangeably with software engineering however the two streams are different. Software engineering is more about finding solutions to business problems and computer programming is about implementing the solutions.

Since these are so interlinked computer engineers and software engineers work with each other and sometimes also step into each others’ roles. Therefore all the industries and opportunities mentioned above (see software engineering) are also applicable for computer programming. Some of the work roles taken up by computer programmers are Coding, Compilation, Debugging, Documentation, Integration, Maintenance, Requirements analysis, Software architecture, Software testing, This course is fairly widely available in US universities. This course is also very common among Indian students studying at US universities. Entry requirements vary based on university and some universities also accept students without GRE scores.
 

DATABASE SYSTEMS
Database involves the study of systems, known as databases, which can efficiently store, process, and retrieve substantial quantities of information. At the masters level an advanced study of analysis and design of relational, network, and hierarchical databases is generally covered. Since data is key to any organization for its business the role of the database specialist is crucial while determining the requirements and its use and maintenance.  Database system specialists thus play the following roles. They participate in Data Definition (Defining new data structures, removing and modifying the structure of existing data), Data Maintenance (Inserting, updating and deleting data),  extracting data and Data Control (monitoring and restricting access).

This course is fairly widely available in US universities. This course is also very common among Indian students studying at US universities. Entry requirements vary based on university and some universities also accept students without GRE scores.
 

COMPUTER SERVICING TECHNOLOGY
Computer Service Technology program basically provides technical support to computer users in a work environment. This instructional program prepares individuals to install, operate, upgrade, maintain hardware and software, test, service, create maintenance schedule and diagnose operational problems in computer systems arising from mechanical or electrical malfunctions in computer units or systems.

Specialists in computer servicing can find openings in any large organization that has a large network of computers for quick response on maintenance. Typical industries include financial organizations, the government, healthcare, educational institutions, call centres, IT companies and manufacturing set ups.

Also opportunities are available with IT service support organizations who take up the role of managing the systems for their clients.

This course is not very common and only a few universities offer this specialization. Entry requirements vary based on university however students need overall 60%+ in Bachelors with few backlogs.GRE is not compulsory for admission in this course.

 

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