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VIVAD SE VISHWAS BILL IS FOR?

                                           Indradhanush


Fifth edition of joint exercise Indradhanush between the Indian Air Force (IAF) and Royal Air Force (RAF) of the United Kingdom concluded at Air Force Station Hindan on 29 February 2020 The focus of this edition of the exercise is 'Base Defence and Force Protection'. This theme is of significance considering the recent threats to military establishments from terror elements. The aim of the exercise is to enhance mutual operational understanding, exchanging tactics, techniques and procedures. The highlights of the exercise that commenced on 24 February 2020 were combat free fall (CFF), special heli-borne operations, air-field seizure and joint intervention drill.


Commonwealth Points of Light Award
 Famous Environmental activist Jadav Payeng, popularly called the 'Forest Man', was named as the 128th Commonwealth Points of Light Award winner. The Points of Light Award recognizes people across Commonwealth nations for the difference they are making in their communities and beyond. He was conferred with this award for his exceptional voluntary service to environmental conservation. He belongs to Assam. He transformed a treeless sandbar along the Brahmaputra River into a 1360-acre vibrant wildlife haven. 


World University Rankings

  QS (Quacquarelli Symonds) released the World University Rankings by Subject 2020 on 4 March 2020. Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) in Mumbai and Delhi found place among the top 50 engineering colleges across the globe in this ranking. While IIT Bombay ranked 44 and IIT Delhi bagged the 47th rank. Other Indian technological and engineering institutes like IIT Kharagpur (86), IIT Madras (88) and IIT Kanpur (96) found their places in top 100 of this category. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in USA got first rank.


Land Records and Services Index

 National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) released India's first land records and services index on 27 February 2020. Madhya Pradesh is the best performing state in terms of digitizing land records followed by Odisha. NCAER Land Records and Services Index (N-LRSI 2020) is based on data collected over 2019-20 on two aspects of the supply of land records. They are the extent of digitization of land records and the quality of these land record. The  Director General of NCAER Shekhar Shah said that the index will help formulate state action plans to attain the goal of secure, assured land records that mirror ground realities and are generated by efficient titling services.


Setu Bharatam

Union Government contemplated the replacement of all the level crossings on National Highways by Road Over Bridges or Road Under Bridges under the Setu Bharatam scheme. The programme is being implemented by Road Transport and Highways Ministry to ensure safe and smooth flow of traffic and reduced road fatalities by 50% by 2020. Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the Setu Bharatam scheme on 4th March in 2016. 208 places were identified for construction of rail over-bridges or underpasses under the project at a cost of nearly 10,200 crore rupees. 


USA-Taliban peace deal

 On 29 February 2020, the USA signed historic peace deal with the Taliban in Doha, the capital of Qatar. India attended the historic event as observer. India’s envoy to Qatar P Kumaran witnessed the signing of the peace treaty to end USA soldier’s presence in Afghanistan in a phased manner in next 14 months. As part of the deal, the Talibans are required to initiate a dialogue with the Afghan government and other civil society and political groups for a permanent ceasefire and power sharing in post war Afghanistan. It was more than 18 years ago that the United States had ordered an attack on the Talibans, following the tragic 9/11 happening in USA.


Vivad Se Vishwas

Direct Tax Vivad Se Vishwas Bill, 2020 seeks to provide taxpayers an opportunity to settle direct tax disputes within the current financial year by waiving interest and penalty on their pending taxes. Lok Sabha passed the Vivad se Vishwas Bill, aims to settle pending direct tax disputes in the country recently. The bill paves the way to provide resolution of disputed tax and related matters. 
    There are four lakh eighty three thousand cases amounting to over nine lakh crore rupees related to direct tax pending in different appellate forums including High Courts and Supreme Court. Finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman said that taxpayers willing to settle disputes shall be allowed a complete waiver of interest and penalty if they pay the entire amount of tax before the stipulated date. 


Chronicles of Change Champions

On 5 March 2020, the Union Minister for Women and Child Development Smriti Zubin Irani released a book titled 'Chronicles of Change Champions' at an event held in New Delhi. 
    The book is a compilation of 25 innovative initiatives taken at the state and district levels under the Prime Minister’s flagship scheme of 'Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao'. She also urged those districts that are lagging in the girl child sex ratio to work with best performing States like Haryana and Arunachal Pradesh who have done commendable work in improving the sex ratio of the girl child.


Supreme Court allows trade in cryptocurrency 

 On 4 March 2020, the Supreme Court struck down Reserve Bank of India (RBI)’s 2018 circular, preventing banks from providing services in support of cryptocurrencies. Among those entities that challenged the RBI were the Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI), which represents the interests of the online and digital services industry, exchanges and crypto asset traders. 
    IAMAI argued that trading in cryptocurrencies in the absence of a law banning those was a 'legitimate' business activity under the Constitution. 


Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) - II

On 4 March 2020, the Union government launched the second phase of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) (SBM (G) Phase-II). It will be implemented from 2020-2021 to 2024-2025 in a mission mode with an outlay of Rs.1,40,881 crores. Union Minister of Jal Shakti  Gajendra Singh Shekhawat on this occasion said that the second phase will focus on sustaining the gains made under the programme in the last five years in terms of toilet access and usage, ensuring that no one is left behind.
    It will continue to generate employment and provide impetus to the rural economy through the construction of household toilets and community toilets. It will also ensure that effective solid and liquid waste management (SLWM) is instituted in every Gram Panchayat of the country.


Pritzker Architecture prize 2020

Pritzker Architecture prize awarded each year to a living architect/s for significant achievement. Irish based Yvonne Farrell and Shelley McNamara was conferred with the Pritzker prize 2020. Both gained international fame for their inspired structures that include Paris's Institut Mines Telecom building. This is the first time a female duo conferred with architecture’s most prestigious award.


Model Questions


1.   Jan Aushadi Diwas celebrated on .....
    1) 1 March         2) 3 March        3) 5 March         4) 8 March        5) 7 March 


2.   Muhyiddin Yassin is the new Prime Minister of .....
    1) Finland      2) Iraq      3) Malaysia     4) Sudan     5) Israel 

 

3.  108th Indian Science Congress 2021 to be held in .....?
    1) Pune         2) Bangalore          3) Jalandhar        4) Imphal         5) Tirupathi

 

4.   How much aid committed by World Bank to help countries to combat the coronavirus outbreak?
    1) $ 18 billion      2) $ 16 billion     3) $ 12 billion     4) $ 20 billion     5) $ 10 billion

 

5.  From 16th to 20th May 2020, 4th Global Ayurveda Festival will be held at .....
    1) Kochi          2) Kanyakumari         3) Haridwar        4) Porbandar          5) Jammu

 

6.  The wrong combination is .....?
    1) Foreign Secretary-Harsh Vardhan Shringla   
    2) Chief Economic Adviser - Krishnamurthy Subramanian 
    3) 15th Finance Commission chairman  -  N.K. Singh 
    4) Finance Secretary - Ajay Bhushan Pandey 
    5) Securities & Exchange Board of India (SEBI) chairman - Subhash Chandra Khuntia 

 

7.  AJEYA WARRIOR-2020 is the joint military exercise between India and .....
    1) UK    2) France      3) Sri Lanka    4) Japan     5) Oman

 

8.  Namaste Orchha festival recently concluded in .....
    1) Arunachal Pradesh            2) Kerala           3) Assam          4) Madhya Pradesh          5) West Bengal
   

9.  Chapchar Kut is the biggest and most joyful festival of ?
    1) Maharashtra            2) Tamil Nadu            3) Mizoram              4)  Karnataka          5) Haryana

 

10.   National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) infused ..... in the rural banking system during the current fiscal year
    1) Rs.2.46 lakh crore      2) Rs.1.06 lakh crore     3) Rs.3.46 lakh crore     4) Rs.1.46 lakh crore    5) Rs.2.86 lakh crore

 

11.  Badminton Asia Championships 2020 shifted from Wuhan (China) to ..... due to coronavirus outbreak
    1) New Delhi, India     2) Manila, Philippines    3) Colombo, Sri Lanka       4) Katmandu, Nepal     5) Tokyo, Japan

 

Key: 1-5; 2-3; 3-1; 4-3; 5-1; 6-5; 7-1; 8-4; 9-3; 10-4; 11-2.
 

SSC MTS Syllabus

Keep soil alive..  protect soil biodiversity!

1. RBI declared that all branches of Lakshmi Vilas Bank Ltd. operate as branches of DBS Bank India Ltd. from 27 November 2020. Who is the present MD & CEO of DBS Bank India Ltd?
1) Rajesh Prabhu           2) Preeti Priya
3) Surojit Shome            4) Ravindra Bahl
5) Vikram Sud


2. RBI announced to increase the limit for contactless card transactions to…………..from Rs. 2,000 per transaction  from 1 January 2021
1) Rs. 10,000            2) Rs. 15,000
3) Rs. 5,000              4) Rs. 20,000
5) Rs. 25,000


3. As per monetary policy review statement announced by RBI governor on 4 December 2020, Real GDP growth projection for FY 21 revised to ………
1) −7.5%       2) −5.5%       3) −6.5%    4) −8.5%      5) −4.5%


4. The RBI projected CPI inflation at  …………..Q3 of FY 21
1) 4.8%     2) 1.5%     3) 8.4%     4) 3.8%     5) 6.8%


5. Banks can avail funds from RBI   under TLTRO to invest in sectors   under ECLGS 2.0 as per the recent   decision of RBI. In this context what  stands for ‘R’ in TLTRO?
1) Rupee      2) Repo     3) Real    4) Rule     5) Raise


6. Asian Development Bank on 20  November 2020 said it approved $   50 million loan to improve operational   efficiencies and resource  planning and management in…
1) West Bengal          2) Odisha             3) AP
4) Tamil Nadu            5) Chhattisgarh


7. The latest Policy rates and Reserve    Ratios of RBI are given, after declaration    of monetary policy review.   The wrong option is…………
1) Repo Rate : 4.00%     

2) Reverse Repo Rate : 3.35%     

3) Marginal Standing Facility  Rate : 4.25% 

4) Cash Reserve Ratio : 3.00%

5) All of above correct


8. RBI decided to make RTGS available round the clock on all days of the year with effect from …………
1) 25 December 2020
2) 31 December 2020
3) 14 December 2020
4) 14 January 2021
5) 1 February 2021


9. Which international monetary authority promised a loan of $132.8 million loan to Meghalaya to strengthen and modernize the distribution network and improve the
quality of power supplied to households, industries, and businesses on 1 December 2020?
1) AIIB      2) NDB     3) ADB     4) World Bank    5) USAID


10. On 25 November 2020, PM Modi released a special stamp and Rs. 100 commemorate coin on the foundation day of which university/ college/ Institution?
1) Jawaharlal Nehru University
2) Indian Institute of Science
3) IIT Delhi

4) St.Stephen’s College
5) Lucknow University


11. International Day of Banks is observed globally on…………
1) 1 December       2) 8 December
3) 10 December     4) 4 December
5) 11 December


12. World’s first central bank to have over 1 million followers on Twitter is......
1) Sveriges Riksbank, Sweden
2) People’s Bank of China, China
3) RBI, India
4) BangkoSentral ng Pilipinas,Philippines
5) State Bank of Pakistan, Pakistan


13. USA President-elect Joe Biden named whom as his nominee for treasury secretary? If confirmed by the Senate, she would be the first woman ever to hold the post.
1) Janet Yellen           2) Mala Adiga
3) Neera Tanden       4) Jen Psaki
5) Kate Bedingfield


14. RBI ordered which bank to suspend planned digital launches and the addition of fresh credit card customers, following frequent outages in online services ?
1) SBI      2) RBL Bank     3) HDFC Bank   4) YES Bank     5) Union Bank of India


15. To empower MSMEs with instant   digital loans, Suryoday Small  Finance Bank announced partnership  with…………….
1) Amazon Pay       2) Mobikwik       3) PhonePe   

4) G-Pay                 5) Paytm


16. ‘Ek Parivar Ek Bank’ is the punch   line of ……………
1) Bank of India        2) Dhanlaxmi Bank       3) Punjab National Bank

4) ICICI                     5) Bank of Maharashtra


17. Which international monetary organization  allocated $20.3 million aid  to its developing member countries  to access coronavirus vaccine on  17 November 2020?
1) AIIB     2) IDA    3) ADB   4) NDB    5) IMF


18. Who is the chairman of Indian Oil  Corporation appointed as the first  Vice-president of World Liquefied  Petroleum Gas Association  (WLPGA)?
1) PVG Menon                 2) Rajiv Jalota   3) Shrikant Madhav Vaidya
4) Akshay Kumar Singh   5) Sanjay Kumar Mishra


19. BRICS Economic Research Award   2020, declared by EXIM Bank  India conferred on……….
1) Dr. Dinesh Katre
2) Dr. Adam Yao Liu
3) Mark Carney

4) Seema Gupta
5) Aditya Puri


20. Which two nations are the biggest  contributors towards FDI equity  inflows to India as per the data  published by the Department for  Promotion of Industry and  Internal Trade (DIPP) between April and September 2020?
1) UK and USA
2) France and USA
3) Singapore and USA
4) Singapore and Mauritius
5) USA and Japan


21. Which day celebrated as ‘Awaas Diwas’ to commemorate the launch of PMAY-G, which aims to provide “Housing for All” by 2022?
1) 1 December     2) 14 December    3) 20 November

4) 30 November   5) 5 December


22. Which railway station renamed as  Mahadevappa Mailara Railway  Station in Karnataka?
1) Raichur                         2) Mandya     3) Haveri
4) Subramanya Road       5) Hassan


23. Who launched ANANDA (Atma Nirbhar Agents New Business Digital Application), a digital application for agents for onboarding to get a life insurance policy?
1) SBI Life                        2) HDFC Life      3) LIC
4) ICICI Prudential Life    5) Sri Ram Life Insurance


24. On 25 November 2020, who  launched the Securities Market  Trainers (SMARTs) program, an  initiative aimed at enhancing investor education and awareness?
1) RBI      2) BSE     3) NSE
4) SBI      5) SEBI


25. On 1 December 2020, which state  launched the biggest-ever DirectBenefit Transfer (DBT) scheme  called 'Orunodoi', aiming to cover 22 lakh families by transferring  Rs. 830 per month to the account  of one of the female members of the family?
1) Odisha    2) UP   3) West Bengal   4) Tamil Nadu   5) Assam


26. Uday Shankar was elected as the  new president of …………..
1) FICCI   2) NHB   3) ASOCHAM  4) CII   5) Exim Bank


27. Which North Eastern state was  conferred with four awards for its  more success in the fishery sector  by National Fisheries Development  Board?
1) West Bengal   2) Andhra Pradesh   3) Assam           

4) Maharashtra   5) Karnataka


28. Which nation declared a climate emergency on 2 December 2020 and pledged that its public sector would become carbon neutral by 2025?
1) USA    2) Russia  3) New Zealand 4) Norway  5) Sweden


29. Government of India appointed whom as the new Chairperson of National Dairy Development Board (NDDB)?
1) PD Vaghela   2) Varsha Joshi
3) Sahil Seth     4) Abhas Jha
5) SN Shrivastava


30. Union government unveiled which scheme to impart training to primary cooperative societies in rural areas on 24 November 2020?
1) Sahakar Pragya   2) ARYA    3) Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana
4) ASPIRE               5) Nai Udaan


31. Who is Comptroller & Auditor General of India, elected as External Auditor of Inter Parliamentary Union (IPU), Geneva for a three-year term.
1) K K Venugopal
2) Pradeep Kumar Joshi
3) Girish Chandra Murmu
4) Harsh Vardhan Shringla
5) Desh Deepak Verma


32. India gets which rank in the renewable power capacity as per the statement given by PM Modi in the RE-Invest 2020 meet on 26 Nov 2020?
1) 2nd   2) 7th    3) 10th    4) 4th    5) 8th


33. "Keep soil alive, protect soil biodiversity" is the theme of World Soil Day observed on…
1) 5 December     2) 10 December
3) 7 December     4) 1 December
5) 3 December


34. Uttar Pradesh Cabinet cleared the proposal to rename which airport as Maryada Purushottam Sri Ram Airport?
1) Ayodhya    2) Lucknow    3) Mathura
4) Varanasi    5) Shravasti


35. Government of India is working on an idea to set up a refinery for production of aviation fuel from bamboo grown in the Gadchiroli district of………….
1) Karnataka    2) Maharashtra
3) Jharkhand   4) Arunachal Pradesh
5) Tripura


36. NITI Aayog formed a panel to study feasibility of hyperloop technology in India under the chairmanship of………..
1) Ajay Bhushan Pandey
2) Krishnamurthy Subramanian
3) Karnal Singh

4) VK Saraswat
5) Vinod Kumar Yadav


37. Reliance Industries got first rank in the Fortune 500 list of Indian firms. Which company got second rank?
1) ONGC   2) TATA Motors   3) IOC   4) TCS   5) ICICI Bank


38. Which Municipal Corporation bonds on 2 December 2020, became the first municipal bonds from North India listed on Bombay Stock Exchange?
1) Mumbai    2) Delhi    3) Lucknow   4) Kolkata    5) Pune

 

Key

1-3  2-3  3-1  4-5  5-2  6-1  7-5  8-3  9-3  10-5  11-4  12-3  13-1  14-3  15-5  16-5  17-3  18-3  19-2  20-3  21-3  22-3  23-3  24-5  25-5  26-1  27-3  28-3  29-2  30-1  31-3 

32-4  33-1  34-1  35-2  36-4  37-3  38-3

Keep soil alive..  protect soil biodiversity!

1. RBI declared that all branches of Lakshmi Vilas Bank Ltd. operate as branches of DBS Bank India Ltd. from 27 November 2020. Who is the present MD & CEO of DBS Bank India Ltd?
1) Rajesh Prabhu           2) Preeti Priya
3) Surojit Shome            4) Ravindra Bahl
5) Vikram Sud


2. RBI announced to increase the limit for contactless card transactions to…………..from Rs. 2,000 per transaction  from 1 January 2021
1) Rs. 10,000            2) Rs. 15,000
3) Rs. 5,000              4) Rs. 20,000
5) Rs. 25,000


3. As per monetary policy review statement announced by RBI governor on 4 December 2020, Real GDP growth projection for FY 21 revised to ………
1) −7.5%       2) −5.5%       3) −6.5%    4) −8.5%      5) −4.5%


4. The RBI projected CPI inflation at  …………..Q3 of FY 21
1) 4.8%     2) 1.5%     3) 8.4%     4) 3.8%     5) 6.8%


5. Banks can avail funds from RBI   under TLTRO to invest in sectors   under ECLGS 2.0 as per the recent   decision of RBI. In this context what  stands for ‘R’ in TLTRO?
1) Rupee      2) Repo     3) Real    4) Rule     5) Raise


6. Asian Development Bank on 20  November 2020 said it approved $   50 million loan to improve operational   efficiencies and resource  planning and management in…
1) West Bengal          2) Odisha             3) AP
4) Tamil Nadu            5) Chhattisgarh


7. The latest Policy rates and Reserve    Ratios of RBI are given, after declaration    of monetary policy review.   The wrong option is…………
1) Repo Rate : 4.00%     

2) Reverse Repo Rate : 3.35%     

3) Marginal Standing Facility  Rate : 4.25% 

4) Cash Reserve Ratio : 3.00%

5) All of above correct


8. RBI decided to make RTGS available round the clock on all days of the year with effect from …………
1) 25 December 2020
2) 31 December 2020
3) 14 December 2020
4) 14 January 2021
5) 1 February 2021


9. Which international monetary authority promised a loan of $132.8 million loan to Meghalaya to strengthen and modernize the distribution network and improve the
quality of power supplied to households, industries, and businesses on 1 December 2020?
1) AIIB      2) NDB     3) ADB     4) World Bank    5) USAID


10. On 25 November 2020, PM Modi released a special stamp and Rs. 100 commemorate coin on the foundation day of which university/ college/ Institution?
1) Jawaharlal Nehru University
2) Indian Institute of Science
3) IIT Delhi

4) St.Stephen’s College
5) Lucknow University


11. International Day of Banks is observed globally on…………
1) 1 December       2) 8 December
3) 10 December     4) 4 December
5) 11 December


12. World’s first central bank to have over 1 million followers on Twitter is......
1) Sveriges Riksbank, Sweden
2) People’s Bank of China, China
3) RBI, India
4) BangkoSentral ng Pilipinas,Philippines
5) State Bank of Pakistan, Pakistan


13. USA President-elect Joe Biden named whom as his nominee for treasury secretary? If confirmed by the Senate, she would be the first woman ever to hold the post.
1) Janet Yellen           2) Mala Adiga
3) Neera Tanden       4) Jen Psaki
5) Kate Bedingfield


14. RBI ordered which bank to suspend planned digital launches and the addition of fresh credit card customers, following frequent outages in online services ?
1) SBI      2) RBL Bank     3) HDFC Bank   4) YES Bank     5) Union Bank of India


15. To empower MSMEs with instant   digital loans, Suryoday Small  Finance Bank announced partnership  with…………….
1) Amazon Pay       2) Mobikwik       3) PhonePe   

4) G-Pay                 5) Paytm


16. ‘Ek Parivar Ek Bank’ is the punch   line of ……………
1) Bank of India        2) Dhanlaxmi Bank       3) Punjab National Bank

4) ICICI                     5) Bank of Maharashtra


17. Which international monetary organization  allocated $20.3 million aid  to its developing member countries  to access coronavirus vaccine on  17 November 2020?
1) AIIB     2) IDA    3) ADB   4) NDB    5) IMF


18. Who is the chairman of Indian Oil  Corporation appointed as the first  Vice-president of World Liquefied  Petroleum Gas Association  (WLPGA)?
1) PVG Menon                 2) Rajiv Jalota   3) Shrikant Madhav Vaidya
4) Akshay Kumar Singh   5) Sanjay Kumar Mishra


19. BRICS Economic Research Award   2020, declared by EXIM Bank  India conferred on……….
1) Dr. Dinesh Katre
2) Dr. Adam Yao Liu
3) Mark Carney

4) Seema Gupta
5) Aditya Puri


20. Which two nations are the biggest  contributors towards FDI equity  inflows to India as per the data  published by the Department for  Promotion of Industry and  Internal Trade (DIPP) between April and September 2020?
1) UK and USA
2) France and USA
3) Singapore and USA
4) Singapore and Mauritius
5) USA and Japan


21. Which day celebrated as ‘Awaas Diwas’ to commemorate the launch of PMAY-G, which aims to provide “Housing for All” by 2022?
1) 1 December     2) 14 December    3) 20 November

4) 30 November   5) 5 December


22. Which railway station renamed as  Mahadevappa Mailara Railway  Station in Karnataka?
1) Raichur                         2) Mandya     3) Haveri
4) Subramanya Road       5) Hassan


23. Who launched ANANDA (Atma Nirbhar Agents New Business Digital Application), a digital application for agents for onboarding to get a life insurance policy?
1) SBI Life                        2) HDFC Life      3) LIC
4) ICICI Prudential Life    5) Sri Ram Life Insurance


24. On 25 November 2020, who  launched the Securities Market  Trainers (SMARTs) program, an  initiative aimed at enhancing investor education and awareness?
1) RBI      2) BSE     3) NSE
4) SBI      5) SEBI


25. On 1 December 2020, which state  launched the biggest-ever DirectBenefit Transfer (DBT) scheme  called 'Orunodoi', aiming to cover 22 lakh families by transferring  Rs. 830 per month to the account  of one of the female members of the family?
1) Odisha    2) UP   3) West Bengal   4) Tamil Nadu   5) Assam


26. Uday Shankar was elected as the  new president of …………..
1) FICCI   2) NHB   3) ASOCHAM  4) CII   5) Exim Bank


27. Which North Eastern state was  conferred with four awards for its  more success in the fishery sector  by National Fisheries Development  Board?
1) West Bengal   2) Andhra Pradesh   3) Assam           

4) Maharashtra   5) Karnataka


28. Which nation declared a climate emergency on 2 December 2020 and pledged that its public sector would become carbon neutral by 2025?
1) USA    2) Russia  3) New Zealand 4) Norway  5) Sweden


29. Government of India appointed whom as the new Chairperson of National Dairy Development Board (NDDB)?
1) PD Vaghela   2) Varsha Joshi
3) Sahil Seth     4) Abhas Jha
5) SN Shrivastava


30. Union government unveiled which scheme to impart training to primary cooperative societies in rural areas on 24 November 2020?
1) Sahakar Pragya   2) ARYA    3) Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana
4) ASPIRE               5) Nai Udaan


31. Who is Comptroller & Auditor General of India, elected as External Auditor of Inter Parliamentary Union (IPU), Geneva for a three-year term.
1) K K Venugopal
2) Pradeep Kumar Joshi
3) Girish Chandra Murmu
4) Harsh Vardhan Shringla
5) Desh Deepak Verma


32. India gets which rank in the renewable power capacity as per the statement given by PM Modi in the RE-Invest 2020 meet on 26 Nov 2020?
1) 2nd   2) 7th    3) 10th    4) 4th    5) 8th


33. "Keep soil alive, protect soil biodiversity" is the theme of World Soil Day observed on…
1) 5 December     2) 10 December
3) 7 December     4) 1 December
5) 3 December


34. Uttar Pradesh Cabinet cleared the proposal to rename which airport as Maryada Purushottam Sri Ram Airport?
1) Ayodhya    2) Lucknow    3) Mathura
4) Varanasi    5) Shravasti


35. Government of India is working on an idea to set up a refinery for production of aviation fuel from bamboo grown in the Gadchiroli district of………….
1) Karnataka    2) Maharashtra
3) Jharkhand   4) Arunachal Pradesh
5) Tripura


36. NITI Aayog formed a panel to study feasibility of hyperloop technology in India under the chairmanship of………..
1) Ajay Bhushan Pandey
2) Krishnamurthy Subramanian
3) Karnal Singh

4) VK Saraswat
5) Vinod Kumar Yadav


37. Reliance Industries got first rank in the Fortune 500 list of Indian firms. Which company got second rank?
1) ONGC   2) TATA Motors   3) IOC   4) TCS   5) ICICI Bank


38. Which Municipal Corporation bonds on 2 December 2020, became the first municipal bonds from North India listed on Bombay Stock Exchange?
1) Mumbai    2) Delhi    3) Lucknow   4) Kolkata    5) Pune

 

Key

1-3  2-3  3-1  4-5  5-2  6-1  7-5  8-3  9-3  10-5  11-4  12-3  13-1  14-3  15-5  16-5  17-3  18-3  19-2  20-3  21-3  22-3  23-3  24-5  25-5  26-1  27-3  28-3  29-2  30-1  31-3 

32-4  33-1  34-1  35-2  36-4  37-3  38-3

ANALOGY AND CLASSIFICATION

ANALOGY

SOLVED EXAMPLES

Example 1 :
    ‘MORE’ is related to ‘EORM’ in the same way as ‘SULT’ is related to 
        (1) TIUS     (2) ISTU     (3) IUST     (4) TUIS    (5) None of these
Sol. (4) 
       
Similarly,

 

Example 2 :
‘ON’ is relation ‘OFF’ in the same way as ‘HOT’ is related to …..

        (1) Water         (2) Switch         (3) Tap         (4) Liquid         (5) None of these
Sol. (5) ‘On’ and ‘Off’ are antonymous to each other. Similarly, ‘Cold’ is antonym of ‘Hot’.

 

Example 3 :
ACF : GIL : : CEH : ?

        (1) ILN         (2) IKN         (3) IKM         (4) ILM         (5) None of these
Sol. (2)
          
Similarly,

 

Example 4 :
‘Radish’ is related ‘Root’ in the same way as ‘Rose’ is related to _____?

     (1) Garden      (2) Fragrance      (3) Thorn      (4) Flower      (5) None of these
Sol. (4) Radish is a modified form of root. Similarly, Rose is a flower.

 

Example 5 :
Which of the following is a must for a canteen?

     (1) Estables      (2) Music      (3) Tables-Chairs      (4) Waiter      (5) Manager
Sol. (1) Eatables are must for a canteen.

 

EXERCISE

1. ‘Day’ is related to ‘Night’ in the same way ‘White’ is related to ?
     (1) Black      (2) Colour      (3) Ray      (4) Red      (5) None of these
Ans: 1(Black)
Explanation: Day is antonym of Night. Similarly, Black is antonym of White.

 

2. ‘Mango’ is related to ‘Fruit’ in the same way as ‘Potato’ is related to - ?
     (1) Fruit      (2) Stem      (3) Flower      (4) Root      (5) None of these
Ans: 2(Stem)
Explanation: Mango is a fruit. Similarly, potato is a modified stem.  

 

3. ‘School’ is related to ‘Education’ in the same way as ‘Hospital’ is related to - ?
     (1) Treatment      (2) patient      (3) Doctor      (4) Nurse      (5) None of these
Ans: 1(Treatment)
Explanation: Education is provided in school. Similarly, treatment is given in hospital.

 

4. ‘26’ is related to ‘5’ in the same way as ‘65’ is related to …..
     (1) 7      (2) 9      (3) 8      (4) 6      (5) None of these
Ans:  3(8)
Explanation: 26 is one more than the square of 5.
               26 = (5)2 + 1
     Similarly, 65 = (8)2 + 1

 

5. ‘Cub’ is related to ‘Tiger’ in the same way as ‘Kitten’ is related to …..
     (1) Dog      (2) Cat      (3) Duck      (4) Swan      (5) None of these
Ans: 2(Cat)
Explanation: Here young one-animal relationship has been shown. Cube is baby of tiger. Similarly, kitten is baby of cat.

 

6. AF : CH : : KT : ?
     (1) MU      (2) LU      (3) LV      (4) MV      (5) None of these
Ans: 4(MV)
Explanation:
    
Similarly,

7. ‘MP’ is related to ‘KN’ in the same way as ‘DG’ is related to ____.
     (1) FI      (2) GJ      (3) HK      (4) BE      (5) None of these
Ans: 4(BE)
Explanation:

Similarly,

8. ‘Hospital’ is related to ‘Treatment’ in the same way as ‘School’ is related to –
     (1) Education      (2) Student      (3) Teacher      (4) Classroom      (5) Books
Ans: 1(Education)
Explanation: Treatment is provided in the hospital. Similarly, education is provided in the school.

 

9. A ‘Square’ is related to ‘Cube’ in the same way as a ‘Circle’ is related to –
     (1) Sphere      (2) Circumference      (3) Diameter      (4) Area      (5) None of these
Ans: 1(Sphere)
Explanation: A square is a two-dimensional figure consisting of sides whereas a cube is a three-dimensional figure. Similarly, circle is a two-dimensional figure and a sphere is a three-dimensional figure.

 

10. ‘Iron’ is related to ‘Solid’ in the same way as ‘Mercury’ is related to ____?
     (1) Solid      (2) Gas      (3) Liquid      (4) Vapour      (5) None of these
Ans: 3(Liquid)
Explanation: Iron is found in solid state. Similarly, mercury is found in liquid state.

 

CLASSIFICATION

SOLVED EXAMPLES

Example 1 :
Directions (Q. (a)-(d)) : Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?

 

(a)       (1) Beetroot      (2) Radish       (3) Carrot       (4) Potato       (5) Cabbage
Ans: 5(Cabbage)
Explanation: Except cabbage all others are either modified roots or modified stems.

 

(b)       (1) See       (2) Hear       (3) Think       (4) Smell       (5) Taste
Ans: 3(Think)
Explanation: Think is different from the others

 

(c)       (1) Rectangle       (2) Triangle       (3) Square       (4) Polygon       (5) Circle
Ans: 5(Circle)
Explanation: Circle is different from others. All others are made up of straight lines.

 

(d)       (1) Rose       (2) Lily       (3) Lotus       (4) Marigold       (5) Apple
Ans: 5(Apple)
Explanation: Except apple all others are flowers.
Example 2 :

Directions (Q. (e)-(h)) : Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
 

(e)       (1) 47       (2) 27       (3) 17       (4) 37        (5) 67
Ans: 2(27)
Explanation: Except 27, all others are prime numbers.

 

(f)       (1) 12       (2) 24       (3) 84       (4) 48        (5) 36
Ans: 5(36)
Explanation: The number 36 is a perfect square

 

(g)       (1) 17       (2) 23       (3) 37       (4) 13        (5) 73
Ans: 2(23)
Explanation: The sum of digits is even number in case of all the numbers except in the case of 23.

 

(h)       (1) 13       (2) 37       (3) 73       (4) 53        (5) 39
Ans: 5(39)
Explanation: Except the number 39, all other numbers are prime numbers.

 

Example 3 :
 

Directions (Q. (i)-(j)) : Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
 

(i)       (1) MP       (2) AD       (3) IL       (4) QT       (5) FJ
Ans: 5(FJ)
Explanation:
   
(j)       (1) BD       (2) MO       (3) QS       (4) FI       (5) TV

Ans: 4(FI)
Explanation:

 

EXERCISE

Directions (Q. 1-6) : Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
 

1.      (1) Fruit       (2) Leaf       (3) Flower       (4) Tree       (5) Trunk
Ans: 4(Tree)
Explanation: All others are parts of a tree.

 

2.       (1) Table       (2) Chair       (3) Cupboard       (4) Bed       (5) Computer
Ans: 5(Computer)
Explanation: Computer is different from others. Computer is an electronic device. All others are different type of furniture.

 

3.       (1) March       (2) January       (3) July       (4) June       (5) May
Ans: 1(March)
Explanation: Except June all other months have 31 days.

 

4.       (1) Red       (2) Pink       (3) Green       (4) Violet       (5) yellow
Ans: 2(Pink)
Explanation: Except pink, all others are different colors of a rainbow.

 

5.       (1) Father       (2) Aunt       (3) Mother       (4) Uncle       (5) Niece
Ans: 5(Niece)
Explanation: Niece represents the next generation.

 

6.       (1) Desk       (2) BlackBoard       (3) Classroom       (4) Bench       (5) Chair
Ans: 3(Classroom)
Explanation: Classroom is different from others.

Directions (Q. 7-12) : Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
 

7.       (1) 119       (2) 123       (3) 143       (4) 137       (5) 149
Ans: 1(119)
Explanation: Except 119 all others are prime numbers

 

8.       (1) 108       (2) 126       (3) 153       (4) 207       (5) 102
Ans: 5(102)
Explanation: 108   1 + 0 + 8 = 9;
                       126   1 + 2 + 6 = 9;
                       153   1 + 5 + 3 = 9;
                       207  2 + 0 + 7 = 9;
                       102  1 + 0 + 2 = 3;

9.       (1) 56       (2) 35       (3) 49       (4) 42       (5) 51
Ans: 3(49)
Explanation: The number 49 is a perfect square.

 

10.       (1) 99       (2) 143       (3) 132       (4) 88       (5) 126
Ans: 5(126)
Explanation: Except 126, all other are multiples of 11.

 

11.       (1) 39       (2) 63       (3) 78       (4) 37       (5) None of these
Ans: 4(37)
Explanation: The number 37 is a Prime number.

 

12.       (1) 343       (2) 64       (3) 75       (4) 27       (5) 216
Ans: 3(75)
Explanation: Except 75 all others are perfect cubes; 
                       43 = 64, 73 = 343, 33 = 27, 63 = 216

 

Directions (Q. 13-15) : Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?

13.       (1) MLJ       (2) WVT       (3) OMK       (4) JIG       (5) TSQ
Ans: 3(OMK)
Explanation:

14.       (1) BRQ       (2) FUT       (3) OXV       (4) DSR       (5) KZY
Ans: 3(OXV)
Explanation:

15.       (1) HJG       (2) PQN       (3) DEB       (4) TUR       (5) KLI
Ans: 1(HJG)
Explanation:

CODING-DECODING

SOLVED EXAMPLES
 

Example 1 :-
If GOODNESS is coded as HNPCODTR, then how GREATNESS can be written in that code?

    (a) HQZSMFRT      (b) HQFZUFRTM     (c) HQFZUODTR     (d) HQFZUMFRT
Sol. (d) Clearly, the letters in the word GOODNESS are moved one step forward and one step backward alternative to obtain the letters of the code.
As,

Example 2:-
If in a certain code ‘INTELLIGENCE’ is written as ‘ETNIGILLENCE’, then how can ‘MATHEMATICAL’ be written in the same code?
(a) AMHTMETACILA
(b) TAMMEHITALAC
(c) HTAMTAMELACI
(d) LACITAMEHTAM
Sol. (c)
As,

 

Example 3 :-
In a certain code language, ‘STARK’ is written as ‘LBFMG’ and ‘MOBILE’ is written as ‘TNRSPJ’. How will ‘BLAME’ be written in that same code language?
   (a) TSFRJ      (b) RPFTJ     (c) NJFTP     (d) TSFGJ     (e) None of these
Sol. (b) Using direct letter coding method. 

Example 4:-
In a certain coding system, ‘SHEEP’ is written as ‘GAXXR’ and "BLEAT’ is written as ‘HPXTN’. How can ‘SLATE’ be written in that same coding system?
   (a) GPTNX     (b) GPTXN      (c) GPXNT     (d) PTGXN     (e) None of these
Sol. (a) In both the words ‘SHEEP’ and ‘BLEAT’, the letter E is common and code for E is substituted X. Hence, using direct letter coding method, we have

Example 5:-
If ‘WORK’ is coded as ‘4-12-9-16’, then how will you code ‘WOMAN’?
    (a) 4-12-14-26-13     (b) 4-26-14-13-12  c) 23-12-26-14-13
   (d) 23-15-13-1-14       (e) None of these
Sol. (a) We have,
                        
       Then,
                    
Here, each letter is coded by the numerical value obtained by subtracting its ‘position value’ in English alphabetical order, from 27, e.g. letters W, O, M, A, N are at 23rd, 15th, 13th, 1st and 14th position in alphabetical order. So, their codes are (27 – 23), (27 – 13), (27 – 1), (27 – 14) i.e. 4, 12, 14, 26, 13, respectively i.e. their backward order position.  

 

Example 6 :-
If MADRAS is coded as 517916 and TENANT is coded as 432124, then how would you encode RMATSN?

    (a) 851353       (b) 951363       (c) 951462       (d) 941562
Sol. (c) We have,

Example 7 :-
In a certain code language, ‘it pit sit’ means ‘I am boy’, ‘it nit sit’ means ‘I am girl’, which of the following means ‘girl’?

      (a) it         (b) pit       (c) sit     (d) nit      (e) None of these
Sol. (d) We have
                                      
Here, ‘it’ and ‘sit’ are common in both the messages and ‘I’ and ‘am’ are common in both codes. Hence, code for girl will be ‘nit’.

 

Example 8 :-
In a certain code language,

481 means ‘sky is blue’ 246 means ‘sea is deep’ and 698 means ‘sea looks blue’. What number is the code for blue?
        (a) 1                 (b) 6                   (c) 8            (d) 9
Sol. (c) Given
                       
From Eqs. (i) and (iii),
It is clearly shown that, the code for blue is ‘8’.

 

Example 9 :-
If ‘white’ is called ‘blue’, ‘blue’ is called ‘red’, ‘red’ is called ‘yellow’, ‘yellow’ is called ‘green’, ‘green’ is called ‘black’, ‘black’ is called ‘violet’ and ‘violet’ is called ‘orange’, then what would be the colour of human blood?

    (a) Red         (b) Green     (c) Yellow     (d) Violet       (e) Orange
Sol. (c) We know that, the colour of the human blood is ‘red’ but here ‘red’

 

Example 10 :-
If ‘parrot’ is known as ‘peacock’, ‘peacock’ is known as ‘swallow’, ‘swallow’ is known as ‘pigeon’ and ‘pigeon’ is known as ‘sparrow’, then what would be the name of Indian National Bird?

     (a) Parrot    (b) Swallow      (c) Peacock     (d) Pigeon     (e) Sparrow
Sol. (b) We know that, peacock is the Indian National Bird but here peacock is known as swallow. So, the answer is swallow.

 

Coded Inqualities - Basics

Model - 1

Reverse symbols:

Symbol                  Reverse symbols                                                                  

A > B                     B < A      

A < B                    B > A

A B                    B A

A B                    B A

A = B                    B = A

 

 Opposite symbols:

Symbol                    Opposite symbols
     >                         < or
     <                         > or
                                  
                                

     =                            =

Directions (Q.1-10): In these questions, relationship between different elements is shown in the statement(s). The statement(s) is/are followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. Study the conclusions based on the given statement(s) and select the appropriate answer.

Give answer:

1) If only conclusion I follows

2) If only conclusion II follows

3) If either conclusion I or II follows

4) If neither conclusion I nor II follows

5) If both conclusions I and II follow

1. Statement: E > A = B C H > N

   Conclusions: I. E > N   II. C < E

2. Statement: Y X Z = A D = E

   Conclusions: I. A Y II. X E

3. Statement: K O < L = G > H T

   Conclusions: I. K < G II. L > T

4. Statement: P M = D < E W > J

   Conclusions: I. J < D II. E > P

5. Statement: P > S O = M Z L = D

   Conclusions: I. S = Z II. Z > S

6. Statements: P > L A = N E D;  R N > D

   Conclusions: I. E L II. R < P

7. Statements: K E M = C S > H; U < L M T > B

   Conclusions: I. T K II. H < U

8. Statements: A C < N = K G < E; Q K > M O; H > F K P < R

   Conclusions: I. G < H II. N > O

9. Statements: E F < G H; J < H K I Q; L < N > H T = M

   Conclusions: I. G < M II. M = G

10. Statements: A < Q = R Z > T; Q M < B > Y = L; S < I > T = B J

     Conclusions: I. Z < B II. Y > S

 

Directions (Q.11–15): In these questions, relationship between different elements is shown in the statements. The statements are followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. Study the conclusions based on the given statement and select the appropriate answer.

11. Statements: N W; W > H; H < T

Conclusions: I. H < N II. T > W

1) Neither I nor II follows    2) Only I follows     3) Only II follows    4) Both I and II follow    5) Either I or II follows

12. Statements: F > R; H < R; L H

Conclusions: I. R L II. F > L

1) Only II follows    2) Either I or II follows   3) Only I follows    4) Neither I nor II follows   5) Both I and II follow

13. Statements: J K; K < M; M > T

Conclusions: I. K < T II. K T

1) Both I and II follow   2) Either I or II follows   3) Only II follows    4) Neither I nor II follows   5) Only I follows

14. Statements: F M, M > A, R < A, E > R

Conclusions: I. F E II. F < E

1) Only I follows       2) Both I and II follow
3) Only II follows      4) Either I or II follows   5) Neither I nor II follows

15. Statements: A B, M > B, D < M, F = D

Conclusions: I. B < A II. M > F

1) Neither I nor II follows  2) Both I & II follow   3) Only I follows  

4) Either I or II follows   5) Only II follows

Directions (Q.16-20): In these questions, relationship between different elements is shown in the statement. The statement is followed by some conclusions. Study the conclusions based on the given statement and select the appropriate answer.
16. Statement: A < D > C < E > B

Conclusions: I. C > B II. A < E

1) Either conclusion I or II follows   2) Only conclusion I follows   3) Neither conclusion I nor II follows

4) Both conclusions I and II follow   5) Only conclusion II follows

17. Statement: M < O = U N > T D

Conclusions: I. O > D II. M T

1) Either conclusion I or II follows     2) Only conclusion I follows   3) Neither conclusion I nor II follows   

4) Both conclusions I and II follow    5) Only conclusion II follows

18. Statement: P R > Q = T S

Conclusions: I. T < P   II. S = Q   III. Q > S

1) Either conclusion II or III follows    2) Only conclusion I follows    3) Only I and either conclusion II or III follows     4) All follow   5) None follows

19. Statement: S U W P = C > M

Conclusions: I. M < U  II. C > S  III. U = M

1) Either conclusion I or III follows   2) Only conclusion I follows   3) Only II and either conclusion I or III follows   4) Only II follows   5) All follow

20. Statement: J O < A N T > Z R

Conclusions: I. A > J   II. N < R   III. A = T

1) Only I follows     2) Only II and III follow     3) Only conclusion II follows   

4) Only II and either conclusion I or III follows    5) All follows 
 

Solutions
1. Two opposite symbols between E and N, Hence, I does not follow. Between E and C the symbol > is common. Hence, E > C is true, obviously C < E is also true.

∴ Only II follows.

2. Between Y and A, the symbol is common, Hence, Y A is true obviously A Y is also true. Between X and E two opposite symbols, hence no conclusion can be drawn

∴ Only I follows

3. Between K and G, the Symbol < is common. Hence K < G follows. Between L and T, the symbol > is common. Hence L > T follows.

∴ Both I and II follow

4. Two opposite symbols between D and J. Hence, I does not follow. Between P and E, the symbol < is common. Hence P < E is true ⇒ E > P is also true

∴ Only II follows.

5. Between S and Z, the symbol is common. Hence, S Z true ⇒ Z S is also true.

∴ Either I or II follows

6. Two opposite symbols are there in between L and E. Hence I does not follow. Combining both the statements, we have P > N R. So P > R is true ⇒ R < P is also true.

∴ Hence only II follows

7. Combining both the statements we have K M T. So, K T is true ⇒ T K is also true. Two opposite symbols between U and M So, II does not follow.

∴ Hence, only I follows.

8. Combining we have, H > K G. So, H > G is true ⇒ G < H is also true. Combining we have N = K > O ⇒ N > O is true.

∴ Hence, both I and II follow 
9. Combining we have, G H M. So, G M is true.

∴ Hence, either I or II follows.

10. Between Z and B there are two opposite symbols. So, I does not follow. Between S and B there are two opposite symbols. So, II does not follow.

∴ Hence, neither I nor II follows

11. Combining we have, N W > H So, N > H is true ⇒ H < N is also true Between W and T there are two opposite symbols, so no Conclusion can be drawn.

∴ Hence only I follows.

12. Combining we have F > R > H L From this, R L does not follow. F > L follows.

∴ Hence, only II follows

13. Combining we have J K < M > T Between K and T, two opposite symbols. So, neither I nor II follows, but between I and II, one of the conclusions must be true but
which conclusion must be true we cannot say.

∴ Hence either I or II follows.

14. Combining the statements we have F M > A > R < E Between F and E two opposite symbols. Hence neither I not II follows, But between I and II, one of the Conclusions must be true but which conclusion is definitely true we cannot say.

∴ Hence either I or II follows

15. Combining the statements we have A B < M > D = F A B is true ⇒ B A true but only B < A is false. M > F is true.

∴ Hence, only II follows

16. Between CB, and AE there are two opposite symbols.

∴ Hence, neither I nor II follows.

17. Between OD and MT there are two opposite symbols. 
∴ Hence neither I nor II follows

18. Between P and T, the symbol > is common So, P > T is true ⇒ T < P is also true. Between Q and S, the symbol is common So, Q S is true.

∴ Hence, only I and either conclusion II or III follows.

19. Between U and M, the symbol > is common So, U > M is true ⇒ M < U is true but M = U is false. Between S and C the symbol is common. So, S C is true ⇒ C S is true but only C > S is false.

∴ Hence, only I follows.

20. Between J and A, the symbol < is common. So, J < A is true ⇒ A > J is true. Between N and R, the symbol > is common So, N > R is true but N < R is false. Two opposite symbols between A and T. So III is false. 

∴ Hence only I is true     

KEY
1-2   2-1   3-5   4-2   5-3   6-2   7-1   8-5   9-3   10-4   11-2   12-1  13-2   14-4   15-5   16-3   17-3   18-3   19-2   20-1.

స్టెనోగ్రాఫర్స్  (14.06.2014) - 2

ALPHABETICAL ORDER OF WORDS

In this type of questions the given words are to be arranged in the alphabetical order like in the dictionary. In this method first consider the first letter arrange them in the order and consider second letter and arrange them in the order then take next letter so on. Arrange the given words accordingly. 
 

Arrange the given words in alphabetical order and choose the one that comes first.
 

*  1) Intense      2) Intellect      3) Intend      4) Intelligent        5) Integument
Ans: 5.
Hint: Integument, Intellect, Intelligent, Intend, Intense

 

*  1) Didactic       2) Dictum       3) Dictionary         4) Diastole      5) Dictate
Ans: 4. 
Hint: Diastole, Dictate, Dictionary, Dictum, Didactic

 

*   1) Animate      2) Animosity       3) Anguish          4) Ankle         5) Announce
Ans: 3.
Hint:  Anguish,  Animate,  Animosity,  Ankle,  Announce

 

*     1) Qualify         2) Quarter           3) Quarrel             4) Quarry         5) Quaver
Ans: 1.
Hint:   Qualify,    Quarrel,    Quarry,    Quarter,    Quaver

 

*   1) Judiciary         2) Jockey         3) Javelin          4) Jealous        5) Jargon
Ans: 5.
Hint:  Jargon,   Javelin,   Jealous,   Jockey,   Judiciary

 

*  1) Blast      2) Bottle     3) Bondage       4) Boisterous      5) Bonafide
Ans: 1.
Hint: Blast,        Boisterous,         Bonafide,          Bondage,          Bottle 

 

*  1) Tenacious     2) Terminate       3) Temperature       4) Temple       5) Tenant
Ans: 3.
Hint:  Temperature,   Temple,    Tenacious,  Tenant,   Terminate

Arrange the given words in alphabetical order and tick the one that comes in the middle.
 

*   1) Plane             2) Plain                      3) Plenty                  4) Player                 5) Place
Ans: 1.
Hint:   Place,     Plain,     Plane,     Player,     Plenty

 

*   1) Parasite            2) Party               3) Petal             4) Paste                5) Prick
Ans: 4.
Hint:  Parasite,       Party,      Paste,     Petal,      Prick 

 

*   1)  Catastrophe     2)  Canvass      3)  Crisp      4)  Charcoal      5)  Character
Ans: 5.
Hint:  Canvass,    Catastrophe,    Character,      Charcoal,    Crisp

 

*  1) Delude        2) Delirium       3) Defer       4) Demean        5) Delete
Ans: 2.
Hint:  Defer,      Delete,       Delirium,       Delude,           Demean

 

*  1) Verrigate         2) Vibrate           3) Vindictive           4) Trench          5) Wavering
Ans: 2.
Hint:  Trench,   Verrigate,   Vibrate,   Vindictive,   Wavering

 

*   1) Firmament        2) Finish        3) First          4) Fissure        5) Fiscal
Ans: 3.
Hint: Finish,        Firmament,         First,       Fiscal,          Fissure

 

*  1) Amphibian    2) Amorphous    3) Amphidextrous    4) Ambiguous      5) Ambivalent
Ans: 2. 
Hint:  Ambiguous,      Ambivalent,       Amorphous,     Amphibian,     Amphidextrous

 

*   1) Entry            2) Efflorescent             3) Entreat            4) Ensure              5) Every
Ans: 3.
Hint:  Efflorescent,        Ensure,         Entreat,          Entry,         Every

 

Arrange the given words in alphabetical order and tick the one that comes at the second place.
 

*   1) Converse       2) Current                 3) Curator               4) Cutaneous              5) Cushion
Ans: 3.
Hint:  Converse,         Curator,         Current,            Cushion,           Cutaneous

 

*    1) Mink       2) Multiple       3) Murder        4) Multitude       5) Music
Ans: 2.
Hint:  Mink,     Multiple,      Multitude,       Murder,         Music

 

*   1) Rural          2) Romance           3) Rejoice                4) Reveal               5) Retain
Ans: 5.
Hint:   Rejoice,     Retain,          Reveal,           Romance,           Rural
In each of the following questions, arrange the given words in which they occur in the dictionary and then choose the correct sequence.
*    A) Peach            B) Praise                C) Precinct                D) Precept             E) Precede
1) 2,1,5,4,3          2) 2,1,3,4,5              3) 2,5,1,4,3              4) 1,2,5,4,3          5) None of these
Ans: 1.

 

*    A) Select            B) Seldom               C) Send                   D) Selfish                      E) Seller
1) 1,2,4,5,3           2) 2,1,5,4,3               3) 2,1,4,5,3                4) 2,5,4,1,3           5) None of these
Ans: 3. 

 

*    A) Wrinkle              B) Wriggle                 C) Writhe               D) Wretch              E) Wrath
1) 4,5,1,2,3          2) 5,4,2,1,3             3) 4,2,5,1,3             4) 5,2,1,3,4        5) None of these
Ans: 2.

 

*    A) Spruce           B) Spume             C) Spree              D) Spurt                 E) Sprawl
1) 5,3,1,2,4        2) 1,2,3,4,5             3) 3,5,1,4,2              4) 5,4,3,2,1         5) None of these
Ans: 1

 

*   A) Credential         B) Creed              C) Crease           D) Cremate            E) Credible
1) 1,2,3,4,5         2) 1,5,3,4,2        3) 5,1,2,3,4       4) 3,1,5,2,4         5) None of these
Ans: 4.

 

*   A) Intrinsic     B) Intrude     C) Intricate        D) Introvert     E) Intrigue      F) Introduce
1) 3,5,1,4,6,2         2) 3,5,1,6,4,2             3) 3,1,5,4,6,2         4) 5,1,3,2,4,6       5) None of these
Ans: 2.

 

*   A) Liver           B) Long            C) Late           D) Load           E) Luminous            F) Letter
1) 3,1,6,2,4,5         2) 3,1,6,2,5,4         3) 3,6,1,2,4,5          4) 3,6,1,4,2,5      5) None of these
Ans: 4. 

 

Answer the following questions based on the alphabet given below:
AB C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 

26. If the letters of the word PRODUCTIVE which are at the odd-numbered position in the English alphabet are picked up and arranged in alphabetical order from left and if they are now substituted by Z, Y, X and so on, beginning from left, which letter will get substituted by W?

1) No letter will get substituted by W.        2)  O         3)  E           4)  C          5) None of these
Ans:  2. 

 

*   What will come in the place of question mark (?) in the following series?
GPW,        GPUW,      GIPUW,       GIPSUW,       ?
1) GIHPSUW         2) GIPQSUW            3) GIKPSUW            4) GUPSUV    5) None of these
Ans: 3. 

 

*  If the alphabets are written in reverse order after interchanging alphabets from 'D to L' with those from ‘R to Z' respectively, which letter would be midway between W and E in the new order?
1) Z              2) N                 3) D               4) There is no such letter                   5) None of these
Ans: 2. 

 

*  If every third letter from the following English alphabet is dropped, which letter will be seventh to the right of eleventh letter from your right?
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W   X   Y   Z
1) V                  2) U                  3) K                  4) I                         5) None of these
Ans: 1.
Hint: After dropping every third letter, we get A B  D  E  G  H  J  K  M  N  P  Q  S  T  V  W  Y  Z ( 11 - 7 )  =  4th from the right

 

*   A B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z
          Four of the following five letter groups of the English alphabet given above are alike in a certain way and so form a group. On the basis of their position in English alphabet, which is the one that does not belong to the group?
1) DKG               2) FMI              3) MTP                4) JQM              5) HOL
Ans: 5.
Hint: In all others, the sequence is that of +7 and - 4 respectively.

 

Following questions are based on English alphabet.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 

*  If the letters from T to Z are interchanged by the letters A to G in such a way that A takes the position of T and so on, then which will be the third letter to the left of 18th from the right?
1) Y                   2) U                3) B                    4) C                     5) None of these
Ans: 1.
Hint: 3rd letter to the left of 18th letter from right. = ( 18 + 3 ) = 21st letter from
right = ( 26 - 21 + 1)  6th from left = F. In the changed sequence, Y comes in place of F.

 

*  If the first 6 letters shall be written in opposite order, then the next 6 letters shall be written in opposite order and so on, and at the end Y will be interchanged by Z then which will be the fourth letter to the right of 13th letter from left?
1) J                  2) H                     3) I                   4) O                          5) None of these
Ans: 5
Hint: 4th to the right of 13th from left = ( 13 + 4 ) =  17th from left =  Q.

 

*   What will come in place of question mark(?) in the following series?
       DGK      GKP     ?     PVC
1) GKV              2) KPV             3) PVZ                 4) KPU                  5) None of these.
Ans: 2
Hint: First letter moves + 3, + 4, + 5 places forward, Second letter + 4, + 5, + 6, and third letter + 5, + 6, + 7 in consecutive terms.

 ANTONYMS

 An ‘antonym’ is often defined as a “word that is contrary in meaning to another”. It is nothing but a word opposite in meaning to the given word. It so happens sometimes that we need to supply an antonym to the given word based on the context in which it is used. As such, anantonym can be opposite in – meaning, gender, status, location, degree, nature and so forth. So,to pick up an antonym to the given word, we need to be provided with the information in which the given word is placed and is in the requirement of its opposite.
  Antonyms form an integral part of the English Language. Acquaintance with the vocabulary of the English language is a necessity for effective expression either in the written or in the oral from. Antonyms are the negative connotation of a particular word. So, it is a word or phrase that is opposite in meaning to a particular word or a phrase in the same language.
 We must remember the following hints to be quite alert while choosing an antonym to thegiven word.
* We should bear in mind that an antonym must be in the same part of speech in which the given word is.

*  We should note that the answer should be in the same tense form in which the given word is.
*  We must pay due attention to the fact that generally the question paper setters include a synonym in the alternative choices, given for the answer of the key word.
* Often the alternative answers are in Active as well as in Passive Voice. The correct answer is that which is similar in voice to the key word.
  An antonym is a word opposite in meaning to another word but similar to it in most other respects. For example, tall and short are opposite in meaning but both are the same parts of speech (adjectives) and would take the same position in a sentence (before the noun they modify).
  Antonyms tend to be adjectives, adverbs and verbs, with relatively few nouns qualifying as true antonyms. For example high (an adjective), slowly (an adverb) and “to fast” (a verb) all have antonyms, while “table” (a noun) does not.
 It is meant to help to improve the vocabulary of the visitors, the students (who are preparing for various examinations), the authors, journalists, literati and all other people who are interested in improving their language skills.

Requirement of appropriate word for the appropriate occasion is inevitable because only with a good knowledge of words one can express the thoughts and feelings meticulously.


COMMIT TO MEMORY
Antonyms can be formed in three ways:
1. By adding a prefix like – un, non, dis, mis, anti, de, il, im, in, ir, mal
2. By adding a suffix like – less, ful,
3. By using a new word

ERROR DETECTION

EXERCISE

Directions: Read each sentence to find out whether there is any error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number of that part is the answer. If there is no error the answer is (5). (Ignore errors of punctuation, if any)
 

1. This laboratory of physics is (1)/ not only equipped with (2)/ all state - of - the - art instrumentry (3)/ but also with outstanding physicists (4)/ No error (5)
A: 2) It should be "equipped not only with" instead of "not only equipped with"

 

2. No method of making (1)/ other people agree to (2)/ your view - point is (3)/ as effective as this method (4)/ No error (5)
A: 1) The Sentence should start as "No other method".

 

3. I was pretty sure that (1)/ he would support my views (2)/ for changing the age - old (3)/ and static structure of our organisation (4)/ No error (5)
A: "Views" should always be followed by "on" instead of "for"

 

4. He is Certainly a man (1)/ whom I know very well (2)/ is trust worthy beyond doubt (3)/ and meticulous in his habits (4)/ No error (5)
A: 3) It should be "and who is trust". In the given form, the subject of "is" is missing

 

5. I am sure about it (1)/ Nobody has lived (2)/ In that house (3)/ for a hundred years (4)/ no error (5)
A: 2) "for a hundred years" indicates that the verb should be in the perfect continuous tense. Hence replace "has lived" with "has been living".

 

6. I am glad to hear (1)/ that you narrowly escaped (2)/ being run over by (3)/ a speeding car yesterday (4)/ No error(5)
A: No error

 

7. I have been (1)/ working for this (2)/ organisation for (3)/ the last ten years (4)/ No error (5)
A: No error

 

8. The officer along with (1)/ his family members was (2)/ Invited at the reception party (3)/ organised by his employer (4)/ No error (5)
A: 3) Use either "reception" or "party" but certainly not together.

 

9. I always prefer (1)/ working in a (2)/ relaxed atmosphere than (3)/ one full of tension and anxiety (4)/ No error (5)
A: 3) In comparision we should use "Prefer to" Instead of "Prefer Than".

 

10. If we had mohan (1)/ in our team we (2)/ would have won the match (3)/ against your team (4)/ No error (5)
A: 5) No error

 

11. When your father inquired (1)/ about your marks (2)/ you lied to him (3)/ Have you not? (4)/ No error(5)
A: 4) Replace "have you not?" with "Didn't you?"

 

12. No sooner did (1)/ I reach (2)/ Delhi railway Station then (3)/ the trian departed (4)/ No error (5)
A: 5) No error

 

13. It being (1)/ pleasant morning I (2)/ decided to go out (3)/ on walking in the garden (4)/ No error (5)
A: 4) "on walking" should be replaced with "for a walk"

 

14. I heard to my surprise (1)/ that the present (2)/ I send him was not (3)/ to his taste (4)/ No error (5)
A: 3) It should be "the present I sent for him".

 

15. When you buy something (1)/ on the instalment system (2)/ you are not required to pay (3)/ the whole price at once (4)/ No error (5)
A: 4) Replace "at once" with "at the begining"

 

16. I am waiting for you (1)/ for the last two hours (2)/ but you did not bother (3)/ to trurn up in time (4)/ No error (5)
A: 1) The sentence should start as, "I had been waiting for you".

 

17. One of the most effective (1)/ solutions is that (2)/ she should work on sunday (3)/ and complete the assignment (4)/ No error (5)
A: 5) No error

 

18. What ever he was (1)/ today is only because (2)/ of his mother who (3)/ was a renowned scientist (4)/ No error (5)
A: 1) The sentence starts in present tense, therefore replace "was" with "is".

 

19. Had he not reached in time (1)/ he would have missed (2)/ a golden opportunity which comes (3)/ once in a while (4)/ No error (5)
A: 5) No error.

 

20. The ministry of Labour conducts its basic survey (1)/ on trade unions each year (2)/ gathering information with all (3)/ labour unions as of June 30 (4)/ No error (5)
A: 3) Replace "with" by "about".

 

21. Stories have always been used (1)/ as a powereful tool for (2)/ communicating vital information from (3)/ one generation to another (4)/ No error (5)
A: 5) No error.

 

22. The driver of that car (1)/ is sounding horn for (2)/ the last ten minutes (3)/ but nobody tells him to stop (4)/ No error (5)
A: 2) It should be "has been sounding horn"

 

23. It has been better (1)/ to put your money in a bank (2)/ than to keep it under (3)/ your bed in a suitcase (4)/ No error (5)
A: 1) Change the first part a "It would be better".

 

24. If you would have read (1)/ the instructions carefully (2)/ you would not have (3)/ answered the Questions wrongly (4)/ No error (5)
A: 1) The sentence should start as "if you had read".

 

25. My daughter never (1)/ would write to me (2)/ So I never know (3)/ what she is doing (4)/ No error (5)
A: 2) Replace "would write" with "writes"

 

26. He walked to the market (1)/ with both his servants (2)/ on either side of his (3)/ to help him buy things (4)/ No error (5)
A: 3) Replace "his" with "him"

 

27. Everyone was reading Quietly (1)/ when Suddenly the door (2)/ burst open and a (3)/ complete stranger rushed in (4)/ No error (5)
A: 5) No error

 

28. My secretary is so (1)/ careful of her work that (2)/ none has so far found (3)/ any error in her work (4)/ no error (5)
A: 2) Replace "of" with "in".

 

29. one of the security men (1)/ rushed forward and asked (2)/ me whether I (3)/ had anything objectionable (4)/ No error (5)
A: 5) No error

 

30. I do not know (1)/ what most people feel (2)/ depressed and dejected (3)/ even with the slightest provocation (4)/ No error (5)
A: 2) Replace ''What" by "why"

Who unveiled the Statue of Peace..?

International

Biden new team
On 24 November 2020, the USA President-elect Joe Biden announced his nominees for key foreign policy and national security roles as the transition process officially began. Antony Blinken will be secretary of state and John Kerry as Climate change envoy. He picked Linda Thomas-Greenfield to represent his nation in UNO as ambassador. He announced many firsts on the team, including Avril Haines, a former deputy director of the C.I.A, who would be the first woman to serve as director of national intelligence, and Alejandro Mayorkas, who would be the first Latino and first immigrant to lead the Department of Homeland Security.
While unveiling the new team Biden said “America is back” and noted that Jake Sullivan, his choice to serve as National Security Adviser, would be the youngest person to coordinate the national security team in decades.


12th BRICS Summit
On 17 November 2020, Prime Minister Narendra Modi virtually participated in the 12th summit of BRICS (Brazil Russia - India - China - South Africa) group. This year's theme was 'Global stability, shared security and innovative growth'. While addressing the meet, PM Modi reiterated India's long-standing demand for reformed multilateralism. He also touched upon the need to reform the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) in light of contemporary challenges. Russian President Vladimir Putin announced the approval of the Moscow Declaration, the BRICS Anti-Terrorism Strategy and the BRICS updated strategy for the economic partnership until 2025 at the culmination of the 12th BRICS summit.


India’s own IRNSS
On 11 November  2020, India became the fourth country in the world to have its independent regional navigation satellite system recognised by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) as a part of the World Wide Radio Navigation System (WWRNS). Now this navigation system can replace GPS (Global Positioning Systems) in the Indian Ocean waters up to 1500 km from the Indian boundary.  By this, India has become the fourth country to have its independent regional navigation system after the USA, Russia and China.


'My understanding about Gandhi'
A special anthology on Mahatma Gandhi 'Maile Bujheko Gandhi' (My understanding about Gandhi) was released by Nepal President Bidhya Devi Bhandari during a ceremony at Kathmandu on 9 November 2020. The pictorial anthology in Nepalese has been released to celebrate 151st Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi and to mark the culmination of the two years long celebrations of '150 years of Mahatma'. The book has been brought out by the Embassy of India along with the BP Koirala India-Nepal Foundation. 


Second World Health Expo
The Second World Health Expo was held between 11-14 November 2020 in Wuhan, the capital city of Central China’s Hubei Province.  The expo features 12 different venues for audiences to experience the most frontier health technology. 

 

APEC 2020
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) began on 20 November 2020 hosted by Malaysia. The official theme of the summit is "Optimising Human Potential Towards a Resilient Future of Shared Prosperity: Pivot. Prioritise. Progress". After the virtual summit, the leaders issued the Kuala Lumpur Declaration. They adopted the Putrajaya Vision 2040, which is a new 20-year growth vision to replace the Bogor Goals named after the Indonesian town where leaders agreed in 1994 to free and open trade and investment. The leaders also pledged to build an “open dynamic, resilient and peaceful region” by 2040. 


UMANG International Version
On 23 November 2020, UMANG app's international version was launched by Union IT Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad
during a virtual conference to mark three years of the platform. The UMANG (Unified Mobile Application for New-age Governance) app provides a single platform to access pan India e-governance services ranging from central to local government bodies, and other citizen-centric services. It will help Indian international students, NRIs and Indian tourists abroad, to avail Government of India services, anytime.


G 20 Summit
Prime Minister Narendra Modi stressed the importance of reforms in multilateral organisations to ensure better global governance for faster post-Covid recovery at the G-20 Summit hosted by Saudi Arabia between 21-22 November 2020. The theme of the summit was "Realising the Opportunities of the 21st Century for All”. The G-20 Riyadh Summit Leaders Declaration said that G 20 next meetings will be in Italy in 2021, Indonesia in 2022, India in 2023 and Brazil in 2024.

 

National

Varunastra
The Chairman of DRDO, G.Satheesh Reddy, flagged off the first Varunastra, the Heavy Weight Torpedo, being delivered to the Indian Navy, at a ceremony held at Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) Visakhapatnam Unit on 21 November 2020. Varunastra  has been designed and developed by NSTL (Naval Science & Technological Laboratory) Visakhapatnam. Varunastra is a ship-launched, heavyweight, electrically-propelled anti-submarine torpedo capable of targeting quiet submarines, both in deep and shallow waters in an intense countermeasures environment.


Safaimitra Suraksha Challenge
On 19 November 2020, the Union minister of state Housing and Urban Affairs (Independent Charge) Hardeep Singh Puri launched the Safaimitra Suraksha Challenge, to ensure that no person needs to enter a sewer or septic tank, unless unavoidable in the interest of greater public hygiene. The virtual event witnessed participation of representatives from 243 cities across the country, coming together to take a pledge to mechanize all sewer and septic tank cleaning operations by 30th April 2021. The Challenge will focus extensively on creating citizen awareness on this critical issue along with infrastructure creation for mechanized cleaning and capacity building of the workforce. The initiative was launched on the occasion of World Toilet Day, observed every year on 19 November.


Lilavati Awards 2020
On 17 November 2020, Union Education Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal ‘Nishank’ launched AICTE’s Lilavati Awards 2020 virtually. The Theme of the award is “Women Empowerment”. This award intends to recognize the efforts being made by AICTE approved institutions to treat women with ‘equality and fairness’ in all spheres of their lives.

 

Statue of Peace 
Prime Minister Modi unveiled the 151inch tall “Statue of Peace” to mark 151st Birth Anniversary of Jainacharya Shree Vijay Vallabh Surishwer Ji Maharaj on 16 November 2020 which was installed at Vijay Vallabh Sadhana Kendra, Jetpura, in Pali, Rajasthan. Shree Vijay Vallabh Surishwer Ji Maharaj (1870-1954) led an austere life as a Jain Saint working selflessly and dedicatedly to spread the message of Lord Mahavira.


SITMEX-20
The Second edition of India, Singapore and Thailand Trilateral Maritime Exercise SITMEX-20 was held from 21 to 22 November 2020 in the Andaman Sea. The exercise was conducted to increase the mutual inter-operability and imbibing best practices among the three naval forces. This year SITMEX hosted by Singapore.

 

Vaccine review tour
On 28 November 2020, Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited three cities to review the vaccine development and manufacturing process for COVID being done by various pharma companies. He visited the Zydus Biotech Park in Ahmedabad, Bharat Biotech in Hyderabad and Serum Institute of India in Pune.


All India Presiding Officers Conference
President Ram Nath Kovind inaugurated the 80th All India Presiding Officers Conference at Kevadia, Gujrat on 25 November 2020.  The Theme of the conference was ‘Harmonious Coordination between Legislature, Executive and JudiciaryKey to a Vibrant Democracy’.  The Lok Sabha Speaker and the Chairman of the All India Presiding Officers Conference Om Birla said that there will be a commitment to implement the decisions taken during the two-day conference in a phased manner.  


Garima Greh..  
On 25 November 2020, the Union Minister for Social Justice & Empowerment Thaawarchand Gehlot inaugurated ‘Garima Greh, the Shelter Home for Transgender Persons’ in Vadodara, Gujarat virtually. He also e-launched a ‘National Portal for Transgender Persons’. The Portal would help a transgender person in applying for a Certificate and Identity card digitally from anywhere in the country without having to visit any office. It should be noted that the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019 came into effect on 10th January 2020 is the first concrete
step towards ensuring the welfare of Transgender persons.


PRAGTI meeting
Prime Minister Narendra Modi chaired the 33rd PRAGTI (Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation) meeting on 25 November 2020.  In this, multiple projects, grievances and programmes were reviewed involving the cost of Rs 1.41 lakh crore that were related to ten states and union territories. 


Bengaluru Tech Summit
On 19 November 2020, Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the Bengaluru Tech Summit (BTS) 2020 virtually.  PM had given a call to the young talents to create robust cybersecurity solutions to protect our data and IT-based products.  Prime Minister of Australia Scott Morrison participated in the meet who said that Bengaluru is India's biggest tech cluster.

 

Others

2020 UN Population Award
On 11 November 2020, the Queen Mother of Bhutan, her Majesty Gyalyum Sangay Choden Wangchuck, was announced as the individual laureate for the 2020 United Nations Population Award.  HelpAge India was announced as the award’s institutional laureate. Gyalyum Wangchuck is a longstanding champion of sexual and reproductive health and rights and the need to end violence against women, girls and children in Bhutan. The world’s ageing population has
gained increasing attention in recent years, but HelpAge India has been working with and for disadvantaged elderly people in India for nearly four decades. Established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1981, the United Nations Population Award recognizes contributions in the fields of population and reproductive health.


Vatayan Award
Union Education Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal was conferred with the Vatayan Lifetime Achievement Award for his exemplary contribution in the field of literature on 21 November 2020. The award was conferred in an online ceremony for his contribution in the field of literature. The award - given by the VatayanUK organisation in London - honours poets, writers and artists for exemplary work in their respective fields. Nishank earlier received several awards in the field of literature and administration including Sahitya Bharati award, Sahitya Gaurav Samman and Bharat Gaurav Samman.

 

Jallikattu
A Malayalam film about a hunt for a bull on the run ‘Jallikattu’ was selected as this year's Oscar entry in the Best International Feature Film category of the 93rd Academy Awards 2021. The film directed by Lijo Jose Pellissery. The film was premiered at the Toronto Film Festival and was also screened at the Busan festival. It is based on a short story by the writer S Hareesh titled Maoist. 


International Children's Peace Prize
On 14 November 2020, Sadat Rahman, a teenager from Bangladesh won the International Children's Peace Prize for his efforts to educate young people about cyberbullying. He was inspired to create this mobile app to help young people report online abuse after hearing about a 15-year-old girl who took her own life because of bullying. The prize is given away by the international children’s rights organization KidsRights to a child, who fights courageously for children’s rights.


National Newborn Week 2020
National Newborn Week 2020 observed from 15 November to 21 November. The theme of the National Newborn Week is 'Quality, equity, dignity for every newborn at every health facility and everywhere’. On this eve, Union Health Minister
Harsh Vardhan said that India has successfully met the 2017 target of the newborn mortality rate of 24 per 1,000 live births and is making efforts to fulfil the target of stillbirth rate of 19 per 1,000 total births by this year. He released a detailed progress card on India Newborn Action Plan targets. He further added that a newborn mortality rate of 23 per 1,000 live births as per the Sample Registration System (SRS), 2018, and estimates of the United Nations Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNIGME).


Booker Prize
Douglas Stuart of Scotland won the Booker Prize for fiction ‘Shuggie Bain’ on 19 November 2020.  The prestigious 50,000 pounds ($ 66,000) award conferred on his debut novel about a boy in Glasgow (Scotland) trying to support his mother, as she struggles with addiction and poverty. Stuart dedicated his book and his prize to his mother, who died of alcoholism when he was 16. Burnt Sugar, a novel written by Avni Doshi, the Indian origin American woman author, settled in Dubai is one among the nominated books for this coveted prize.

 

Model Questions

1. Who was re-elected as the president of Athletics Federation of India?
1) Dr Michael Irani     2) Rohan Jaitley      3) Adille Sumariwalla     4) Anil Jain     5) Gyanendro Ningombam

 

2. The USA President-elect Joe Biden appointed an Indian-American as the policy director of his wife Jill Biden. He/ She is……..
1) Manga Anantatmula      2) Renu Khator     3) Sruthi Palaniappa      4) Rita Baranwal     5) Mala Adiga

 

3. Abhayam, the project for safety and security of women passengers launched by…....
1) AP       2) Telangana       3) Kerala        4) MP        5) Delhi

 

4. India International Cherry Blossom Festival, the calendar event of which state cancelled this year in the wake of COVID-19 pandemic?
1) Manipur      2) Nagaland     3) Mizoram      4) Meghalaya       5) Tripura

 

5. Women's T-20 World Cup 2023 to be hosted by……….
1) India       2) Australia      3) South Africa      4) Sri Lanka      5) New Zealand


6. Delhi got 62nd rank in the list of World’s Best Cities for 2021 prepared by Resonance Consultancy Limited. Which city got the first rank in the world?
1) New York      2) Paris      3) Moscow      4) London      5) Los Angles

 

7. Which nation successfully launched its Chang'e-5 lunar mission to collect rocks from the moon?
1) Japan     2) North Korea     3) China     4) South Korea     5) Thailand

 

8. 14-year-old girl won the prestigious Children's Climate Prize for designing a mobile ironing cart using solar panels to power a steam iron box rather than conventional charcoal. She is........
1) Vinisha Umashankar     2) Aishwarya Sridhar     3) Seema Gupta      4) Sudha Painuli       5) Neelakantha Jonnalagadda

 

9. Who is elected as the new chairman of International Cricket Council (ICC)?
1) Giovanni Infantino      2) Jacques Rogge     3) Greg Barclay      4) Thomas Bach     5) Chris Kermode

 

10. Francisco Sagasti was sworn in as interim president of which nation on 17 November 2020?
1) Peru     2) Moldova     3) Ivory Coast     4) Tanzania     5) Kosovo

 

11. Aung San Suu Kyi's ruling National League for Democracy (NLD) claimed a victory in Myanmar’s second parliamentary election. What is the currency of Myanmar?
1) Kyat       2) Taka       3) Shilling        4) Rupee    5) Tenge

 

12. List of important days given. The correct combination is...
1) National Education Day-11 NOV      2) Public Service Broadcasting Day-12 NOV
3) Samvidhan Diwas or Constitution Day - 26 NOV     4) World Toilet Day - 19 NOV     5) All of above


13. India’s longest single-lane motorable suspension bridge in Tehri Garhwal district on Tehri lake was inaugurated in………
1) Chhattisgarh     2) Assam    3) Arunachal Pradesh    4) Uttarakhand     5) Maharashtra

 

14. Who was appointed as state icon of Punjab by the Election Commission of India?
1) Chacha Chaudhary    2) Harmanpreet Kaur     3) Sonu Sood    4) Yuvraj Singh     5) Harbhajan Singh

 

15. Which Cyclone caused damage in the states of Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and Andhra Pradesh recently?
1) Gaja         2) Gati         3) Nivar       4) Goni         5) Eta

 

16. Who is the author of the book ‘A promised Land’?
1) Shashi Tharoor     2) Boris Johnson     3) Barack Obama     4) Romila Thapar     5) Pope Francis

 

17. The 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference, also known as COP26 to be hosted between 1-12 November 2021 at……….
1) Zurich, Switzerland     2) Paris, France    3) Bonn, Germany    4) Buenos Aires, Argentina    5) Glasgow, Scotland

 

18. ‘Delhi Crime’  won the best drama series honour at the 48th International Emmy Awards. Who is the director of the series?
1) Ismail Umar Khan     2) Garry Bhinder     3) Sumeet Sachdev     4) Richie Mehta     5) Krishna CH

 

19. World’s first library for children on a tram launched in….
1) Pune    2) Chennai    3) Kolkata      4) Cuttack     5) Aizawl

 

20. Lonar Lake in which state has been chosen as a wetland site of international importance under the Ramsar conservation treaty?
1) Karnataka      2) Maharashtra      3) MP       4) Assam       5) Jammu and Kashmir

 

Key:  1-3;   2-5;  3-1;  4-4;  5-3;  6-4;  7-3;  8-1;  91-3;   10-1;   11-1;   12-5;   13-4;   14-3;  15-3;   16-3;  17-5;   18-4;   19-3;   20-2.

DETECTION OF ERROR PART (SPOTTING ERRORS)

   There are several kinds of errors in written communication, particularly in English. These errors take place due to grammatical mistakes or slips in idiomatic usage. Grammatical errors are quite widespread. For tackling, such questions in Competitive Examinations, where English is an integral part, one should have knowledge of some common errors and rules of English grammar and usage. Hence the study material together with concepts on this topic is dealt with in detail in the item concerned.
           The English language is rich and complex. There are many confusing aspects to the rules of grammar and spelling. Many words are quite similar but have very different meanings. It is almost impossible to avoid common errors in English. There are so many rules to remember and so many confusing words.
           Error free writing in English is the result of constant practice and hard work. This fact should encourage us: it means that the ability to write well is not a gift that some people are born with, not a privilege extended to only a few. If we're willing to work, we can improve our English.

          Errors in English generally take place particularly in matters of -- Sequence of Tense, Punctuation, Plural Verb for Singular Subject, Nouns, Noun-Number, Possessive Case, Pronouns, Adjectives, Verbs, Adverbs, Articles, Prepositions, Question Tags, If-conditionals and so forth. As such, we need to be proficient in matters of English grammar to read, write and speak good English.
           Spotting error is an essential part of almost all the competitive examinations, which
include Test of Objective English. The foreign students of English commit some mistakes,
relating to all the important aspects of English grammar. This item, exclusively offered for
Spotting Errors, sets out to throw light on those grammatical errors which the students most frequently commit.
           It is, in this connection, an overview of the English grammar items are offered in a tabular form, which often test how good the skills of our English are. In short, we can understand that the items included in the table are popular in the realm of Spotting Errors in our written English. As such, it is important and better to have a close scrutiny of these topics from their basics to the advanced levels in terms of their usage. A standard High School English Grammar book shall be of good use in this regard.       

             In this section of the examination, sentences are given with the grammatical / the word usage and/ or the spelling errors which we are expected to identify and rectify the error part. For attempting such questions, familiarity with the basic grammar rules, including spellings and the correct usage of words is essential. Some sentences may not have any error, in which case No Error is marked as our answers.
 

SYNONYMS

Synonyms are the words that are similar or nearly similar in meaning. A synonym, thus, has a literal meaning while its implied meaning may be different. Defining a synonym, the Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English mentions – A synonym is a “word or phrase identical and coextensive in sense and usage with another of the same language”. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English writes – A synonym is a “word denoting the same thing as another but suitable to different emphasis”.
          As such, a synonym is a word or expression accepted as a figurative or symbolic substitute for another word or expression. In other words, we can say that a synonym is a word which has the same or almost the same meaning as that of another word in the same language.
          It may, however, be noted that, except in rare cases, no two words are exact synonyms that are interchangeable in all the contexts in which either might appear. However, within a given context, there are often close synonyms. For example: teach, educate and instruct convey more or less same meanings and can be called synonyms though they slightly differ from one another, principally in degrees of abstraction.
Hence words which are synonymous in one of their meanings may differ considerably in their other meanings.

 

COMMIT TO MEMORY

There are certain points which we should remember while choosing a synonym. They are:
* A synonym should be in the same Part of Speech in which the given word is.
* A synonym, as mentioned above, may have a literal meaning and another an implied meaning. So, we should not choose a synonym blindly but be careful whether we have chosen the right word on the basis of the information given in the context.
* Sometimes, the examiners include an antonym in the alternative choices given for the answer of that synonym. Hence, we must be very cautious in choosing a synonym.

 

MIND MAP OF CHOOSING A SYNONYM

         We come to know the brain storming scene of choosing a synonym if we observe the following mind map. The word ‘question’ is the entry for choosing a synonym in the context. The detailed explanation in regard to the selection of the right synonym in the context is offered there under the mind map.


 

CASE 1

Main Entry: question
Part of Speech: noun
Definition: issue, point at issue
Synonyms: discussion, motion, point, problem, proposal, proposition, subject, theme, topic
Antonyms: agreement

 

CASE 2

Main Entry: question
Part of Speech: verb
Definition: ask for answer
Synonyms: ask about, catechize, challenge, cross-examine, enquire, examine, give the third degree, go over, grill, hit up, hit*, hold out for, inquire, interrogate, interview, investigate, knock*, make inquiry, petition, pick one's brains, probe, pry, pump, put through the wringer, put to the question, query, quest, quiz, raise question, roast, search, seek, show curiosity, solicit, sound out, sweat it out of, work over
Antonyms: answer, reply     

 Note: * = informal/non-formal usage

 

CASE 3

Main Entry: question
Part of Speech: verb
Definition: doubt
Synonyms: call into question, cast doubt upon, challenge, controvert, disbelieve, dispute, distrust, hesitate, impeach, impugn, mistrust, oppose, puzzle over, query, suspect, suspicion, wonder about
Antonyms: certainty, doubtlessness, sureness, surety

 

FORMATS OF QUESTIONS ON SYNONYMS

Note: The number of answer options is discretionary in accordance with the recruitment exam.
 

FORMAT 1 (meant for IBPS: Bank POs)
 

* Choose the word/group of words which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word/group of words given in bold as used in the passage. (In this case, a word for choosing the synonym is taken from the passage meant for Reading Comprehension.)

e.g.: tore out
           1. came out gently
           2. pushed out
           3. walked out
           4. rushed out forcefully
           5. destroyed angrily
Ans:  tore out : (4) rushed out forcefully

 

FORMAT 2
* In each of the following questions, out of the given alternatives, choose the one which best expresses the meaning of the given word.
e.g.: ABNEGATION
             a. self-denial
             b. self-sacrifice
             c. self-praise
             d. self-criticism
Ans: ABNEGATION: (a) self-denial

 

FORMAT 3
* In each of the following questions, there are three words which are meanings of a certain
word. Select that word from the answer choices provided in each question.
e.g.: everlasting, endless, unending
(a) living
(b) eternal
(c) increased
(d) durable
Ans: everlasting, endless, unending: (b) eternal

 

FORMAT 4
* In each of the following questions, there are four words marked a-d. While three of them are synonymous or have more or less same meaning, one is altogether different from the rest. Select from the answer choices the word which is different from the rest.
e.g.: (a) witty (b) pleasant (c) comical (d) humorous                                      

Ans. (b) pleasant
 

FORMAT 5
* In each of the following questions, four pairs of words are given, marked a-d. Each pair consists of two words which have more or less similar meaning. However, one pair consists of two words which are different in meaning, which you have to select as your answer.
e.g.: (a) authentic/genuine (b) genius/aptitude (c) ghastly/crime (d) gruesome/grim
Ans: (c) ghastly/crime

 

FORMAT 6
* In each of the following questions, a sentence is given in which one word is printed in bold type. Under each sentence four alternatives, marked a-d are given. Your task is to select the word or expression from the alternatives which convey more or less same meaning as the word printed in bold type.
e.g.: The U.N. coalition forces immediately went into action. (a) most powerful (b) faithful (c) temporary alliance (d) selective
Ans: (c) temporary alliance

Who unveiled the Statue of Peace..?   ​​​​​​​

International

Biden new team
On 24 November 2020, the USA President-elect Joe Biden announced his nominees for key foreign policy and national security roles as the transition process officially began. Antony Blinken will be secretary of state and John Kerry as Climate change envoy. He picked Linda Thomas-Greenfield to represent his nation in UNO as ambassador. He announced many firsts on the team, including Avril Haines, a former deputy director of the C.I.A, who would be the first woman to serve as director of national intelligence, and Alejandro Mayorkas, who would be the first Latino and first immigrant to lead the Department of Homeland Security.
While unveiling the new team Biden said “America is back” and noted that Jake Sullivan, his choice to serve as National Security Adviser, would be the youngest person to coordinate the national security team in decades.


12th BRICS Summit
On 17 November 2020, Prime Minister Narendra Modi virtually participated in the 12th summit of BRICS (Brazil Russia - India - China - South Africa) group. This year's theme was 'Global stability, shared security and innovative growth'. While addressing the meet, PM Modi reiterated India's long-standing demand for reformed multilateralism. He also touched upon the need to reform the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) in light of contemporary challenges. Russian President Vladimir Putin announced the approval of the Moscow Declaration, the BRICS Anti-Terrorism Strategy and the BRICS updated strategy for the economic partnership until 2025 at the culmination of the 12th BRICS summit.


India’s own IRNSS
On 11 November  2020, India became the fourth country in the world to have its independent regional navigation satellite system recognised by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) as a part of the World Wide Radio Navigation System (WWRNS). Now this navigation system can replace GPS (Global Positioning Systems) in the Indian Ocean waters up to 1500 km from the Indian boundary.  By this, India has become the fourth country to have its independent regional navigation system after the USA, Russia and China.


'My understanding about Gandhi'
A special anthology on Mahatma Gandhi 'Maile Bujheko Gandhi' (My understanding about Gandhi) was released by Nepal President Bidhya Devi Bhandari during a ceremony at Kathmandu on 9 November 2020. The pictorial anthology in Nepalese has been released to celebrate 151st Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi and to mark the culmination of the two years long celebrations of '150 years of Mahatma'. The book has been brought out by the Embassy of India along with the BP Koirala India-Nepal Foundation. 


Second World Health Expo
The Second World Health Expo was held between 11-14 November 2020 in Wuhan, the capital city of Central China’s Hubei Province.  The expo features 12 different venues for audiences to experience the most frontier health technology. 

 

APEC 2020
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) began on 20 November 2020 hosted by Malaysia. The official theme of the summit is "Optimising Human Potential Towards a Resilient Future of Shared Prosperity: Pivot. Prioritise. Progress". After the virtual summit, the leaders issued the Kuala Lumpur Declaration. They adopted the Putrajaya Vision 2040, which is a new 20-year growth vision to replace the Bogor Goals named after the Indonesian town where leaders agreed in 1994 to free and open trade and investment. The leaders also pledged to build an “open dynamic, resilient and peaceful region” by 2040. 


UMANG International Version
On 23 November 2020, UMANG app's international version was launched by Union IT Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad
during a virtual conference to mark three years of the platform. The UMANG (Unified Mobile Application for New-age Governance) app provides a single platform to access pan India e-governance services ranging from central to local government bodies, and other citizen-centric services. It will help Indian international students, NRIs and Indian tourists abroad, to avail Government of India services, anytime.


G 20 Summit
Prime Minister Narendra Modi stressed the importance of reforms in multilateral organisations to ensure better global governance for faster post-Covid recovery at the G-20 Summit hosted by Saudi Arabia between 21-22 November 2020. The theme of the summit was "Realising the Opportunities of the 21st Century for All”. The G-20 Riyadh Summit Leaders Declaration said that G 20 next meetings will be in Italy in 2021, Indonesia in 2022, India in 2023 and Brazil in 2024.

 

National

Varunastra
The Chairman of DRDO, G.Satheesh Reddy, flagged off the first Varunastra, the Heavy Weight Torpedo, being delivered to the Indian Navy, at a ceremony held at Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) Visakhapatnam Unit on 21 November 2020. Varunastra  has been designed and developed by NSTL (Naval Science & Technological Laboratory) Visakhapatnam. Varunastra is a ship-launched, heavyweight, electrically-propelled anti-submarine torpedo capable of targeting quiet submarines, both in deep and shallow waters in an intense countermeasures environment.


Safaimitra Suraksha Challenge
On 19 November 2020, the Union minister of state Housing and Urban Affairs (Independent Charge) Hardeep Singh Puri launched the Safaimitra Suraksha Challenge, to ensure that no person needs to enter a sewer or septic tank, unless unavoidable in the interest of greater public hygiene. The virtual event witnessed participation of representatives from 243 cities across the country, coming together to take a pledge to mechanize all sewer and septic tank cleaning operations by 30th April 2021. The Challenge will focus extensively on creating citizen awareness on this critical issue along with infrastructure creation for mechanized cleaning and capacity building of the workforce. The initiative was launched on the occasion of World Toilet Day, observed every year on 19 November.


Lilavati Awards 2020
On 17 November 2020, Union Education Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal ‘Nishank’ launched AICTE’s Lilavati Awards 2020 virtually. The Theme of the award is “Women Empowerment”. This award intends to recognize the efforts being made by AICTE approved institutions to treat women with ‘equality and fairness’ in all spheres of their lives.

 

Statue of Peace 
Prime Minister Modi unveiled the 151inch tall “Statue of Peace” to mark 151st Birth Anniversary of Jainacharya Shree Vijay Vallabh Surishwer Ji Maharaj on 16 November 2020 which was installed at Vijay Vallabh Sadhana Kendra, Jetpura, in Pali, Rajasthan. Shree Vijay Vallabh Surishwer Ji Maharaj (1870-1954) led an austere life as a Jain Saint working selflessly and dedicatedly to spread the message of Lord Mahavira.


SITMEX-20
The Second edition of India, Singapore and Thailand Trilateral Maritime Exercise SITMEX-20 was held from 21 to 22 November 2020 in the Andaman Sea. The exercise was conducted to increase the mutual inter-operability and imbibing best practices among the three naval forces. This year SITMEX hosted by Singapore.

 

Vaccine review tour
On 28 November 2020, Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited three cities to review the vaccine development and manufacturing process for COVID being done by various pharma companies. He visited the Zydus Biotech Park in Ahmedabad, Bharat Biotech in Hyderabad and Serum Institute of India in Pune.


All India Presiding Officers Conference
President Ram Nath Kovind inaugurated the 80th All India Presiding Officers Conference at Kevadia, Gujrat on 25 November 2020.  The Theme of the conference was ‘Harmonious Coordination between Legislature, Executive and JudiciaryKey to a Vibrant Democracy’.  The Lok Sabha Speaker and the Chairman of the All India Presiding Officers Conference Om Birla said that there will be a commitment to implement the decisions taken during the two-day conference in a phased manner.  


Garima Greh..  
On 25 November 2020, the Union Minister for Social Justice & Empowerment Thaawarchand Gehlot inaugurated ‘Garima Greh, the Shelter Home for Transgender Persons’ in Vadodara, Gujarat virtually. He also e-launched a ‘National Portal for Transgender Persons’. The Portal would help a transgender person in applying for a Certificate and Identity card digitally from anywhere in the country without having to visit any office. It should be noted that the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019 came into effect on 10th January 2020 is the first concrete
step towards ensuring the welfare of Transgender persons.


PRAGTI meeting
Prime Minister Narendra Modi chaired the 33rd PRAGTI (Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation) meeting on 25 November 2020.  In this, multiple projects, grievances and programmes were reviewed involving the cost of Rs 1.41 lakh crore that were related to ten states and union territories. 


Bengaluru Tech Summit
On 19 November 2020, Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the Bengaluru Tech Summit (BTS) 2020 virtually.  PM had given a call to the young talents to create robust cybersecurity solutions to protect our data and IT-based products.  Prime Minister of Australia Scott Morrison participated in the meet who said that Bengaluru is India's biggest tech cluster.

 

Others

2020 UN Population Award
On 11 November 2020, the Queen Mother of Bhutan, her Majesty Gyalyum Sangay Choden Wangchuck, was announced as the individual laureate for the 2020 United Nations Population Award.  HelpAge India was announced as the award’s institutional laureate. Gyalyum Wangchuck is a longstanding champion of sexual and reproductive health and rights and the need to end violence against women, girls and children in Bhutan. The world’s ageing population has
gained increasing attention in recent years, but HelpAge India has been working with and for disadvantaged elderly people in India for nearly four decades. Established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1981, the United Nations Population Award recognizes contributions in the fields of population and reproductive health.


Vatayan Award
Union Education Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal was conferred with the Vatayan Lifetime Achievement Award for his exemplary contribution in the field of literature on 21 November 2020. The award was conferred in an online ceremony for his contribution in the field of literature. The award - given by the VatayanUK organisation in London - honours poets, writers and artists for exemplary work in their respective fields. Nishank earlier received several awards in the field of literature and administration including Sahitya Bharati award, Sahitya Gaurav Samman and Bharat Gaurav Samman.

 

Jallikattu
A Malayalam film about a hunt for a bull on the run ‘Jallikattu’ was selected as this year's Oscar entry in the Best International Feature Film category of the 93rd Academy Awards 2021. The film directed by Lijo Jose Pellissery. The film was premiered at the Toronto Film Festival and was also screened at the Busan festival. It is based on a short story by the writer S Hareesh titled Maoist. 


International Children's Peace Prize
On 14 November 2020, Sadat Rahman, a teenager from Bangladesh won the International Children's Peace Prize for his efforts to educate young people about cyberbullying. He was inspired to create this mobile app to help young people report online abuse after hearing about a 15-year-old girl who took her own life because of bullying. The prize is given away by the international children’s rights organization KidsRights to a child, who fights courageously for children’s rights.


National Newborn Week 2020
National Newborn Week 2020 observed from 15 November to 21 November. The theme of the National Newborn Week is 'Quality, equity, dignity for every newborn at every health facility and everywhere’. On this eve, Union Health Minister
Harsh Vardhan said that India has successfully met the 2017 target of the newborn mortality rate of 24 per 1,000 live births and is making efforts to fulfil the target of stillbirth rate of 19 per 1,000 total births by this year. He released a detailed progress card on India Newborn Action Plan targets. He further added that a newborn mortality rate of 23 per 1,000 live births as per the Sample Registration System (SRS), 2018, and estimates of the United Nations Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNIGME).


Booker Prize
Douglas Stuart of Scotland won the Booker Prize for fiction ‘Shuggie Bain’ on 19 November 2020.  The prestigious 50,000 pounds ($ 66,000) award conferred on his debut novel about a boy in Glasgow (Scotland) trying to support his mother, as she struggles with addiction and poverty. Stuart dedicated his book and his prize to his mother, who died of alcoholism when he was 16. Burnt Sugar, a novel written by Avni Doshi, the Indian origin American woman author, settled in Dubai is one among the nominated books for this coveted prize.

 

Model Questions

1. Who was re-elected as the president of Athletics Federation of India?
1) Dr Michael Irani     2) Rohan Jaitley      3) Adille Sumariwalla     4) Anil Jain     5) Gyanendro Ningombam

 

2. The USA President-elect Joe Biden appointed an Indian-American as the policy director of his wife Jill Biden. He/ She is……..
1) Manga Anantatmula      2) Renu Khator     3) Sruthi Palaniappa      4) Rita Baranwal     5) Mala Adiga

 

3. Abhayam, the project for safety and security of women passengers launched by…....
1) AP       2) Telangana       3) Kerala        4) MP        5) Delhi

 

4. India International Cherry Blossom Festival, the calendar event of which state cancelled this year in the wake of COVID-19 pandemic?
1) Manipur      2) Nagaland     3) Mizoram      4) Meghalaya       5) Tripura

 

5. Women's T-20 World Cup 2023 to be hosted by……….
1) India       2) Australia      3) South Africa      4) Sri Lanka      5) New Zealand


6. Delhi got 62nd rank in the list of World’s Best Cities for 2021 prepared by Resonance Consultancy Limited. Which city got the first rank in the world?
1) New York      2) Paris      3) Moscow      4) London      5) Los Angles

 

7. Which nation successfully launched its Chang'e-5 lunar mission to collect rocks from the moon?
1) Japan     2) North Korea     3) China     4) South Korea     5) Thailand

 

8. 14-year-old girl won the prestigious Children's Climate Prize for designing a mobile ironing cart using solar panels to power a steam iron box rather than conventional charcoal. She is........
1) Vinisha Umashankar     2) Aishwarya Sridhar     3) Seema Gupta      4) Sudha Painuli       5) Neelakantha Jonnalagadda

 

9. Who is elected as the new chairman of International Cricket Council (ICC)?
1) Giovanni Infantino      2) Jacques Rogge     3) Greg Barclay      4) Thomas Bach     5) Chris Kermode

 

10. Francisco Sagasti was sworn in as interim president of which nation on 17 November 2020?
1) Peru     2) Moldova     3) Ivory Coast     4) Tanzania     5) Kosovo

 

11. Aung San Suu Kyi's ruling National League for Democracy (NLD) claimed a victory in Myanmar’s second parliamentary election. What is the currency of Myanmar?
1) Kyat       2) Taka       3) Shilling        4) Rupee    5) Tenge

 

12. List of important days given. The correct combination is...
1) National Education Day-11 NOV      2) Public Service Broadcasting Day-12 NOV
3) Samvidhan Diwas or Constitution Day - 26 NOV     4) World Toilet Day - 19 NOV     5) All of above


13. India’s longest single-lane motorable suspension bridge in Tehri Garhwal district on Tehri lake was inaugurated in………
1) Chhattisgarh     2) Assam    3) Arunachal Pradesh    4) Uttarakhand     5) Maharashtra

 

14. Who was appointed as state icon of Punjab by the Election Commission of India?
1) Chacha Chaudhary    2) Harmanpreet Kaur     3) Sonu Sood    4) Yuvraj Singh     5) Harbhajan Singh

 

15. Which Cyclone caused damage in the states of Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and Andhra Pradesh recently?
1) Gaja         2) Gati         3) Nivar       4) Goni         5) Eta

 

16. Who is the author of the book ‘A promised Land’?
1) Shashi Tharoor     2) Boris Johnson     3) Barack Obama     4) Romila Thapar     5) Pope Francis

 

17. The 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference, also known as COP26 to be hosted between 1-12 November 2021 at……….
1) Zurich, Switzerland     2) Paris, France    3) Bonn, Germany    4) Buenos Aires, Argentina    5) Glasgow, Scotland

 

18. ‘Delhi Crime’  won the best drama series honour at the 48th International Emmy Awards. Who is the director of the series?
1) Ismail Umar Khan     2) Garry Bhinder     3) Sumeet Sachdev     4) Richie Mehta     5) Krishna CH

 

19. World’s first library for children on a tram launched in….
1) Pune    2) Chennai    3) Kolkata      4) Cuttack     5) Aizawl

 

20. Lonar Lake in which state has been chosen as a wetland site of international importance under the Ramsar conservation treaty?
1) Karnataka      2) Maharashtra      3) MP       4) Assam       5) Jammu and Kashmir

 

Key:  1-3;   2-5;  3-1;  4-4;  5-3;  6-4;  7-3;  8-1;  91-3;   10-1;   11-1;   12-5;   13-4;   14-3;  15-3;   16-3;  17-5;   18-4;   19-3;   20-2.

ERROR DETECTION IN SPECIFIC WORDS 

Directions: Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error or Idiomatic error in it. The error, If any will be in one part of the sentence. The number of that part is answer. If there is no error, the answer is 5. (Ignore errors of punctuation, if any).
 

1. Gandhiji is known (1)/ for his successful (2)/ afforts (3)/ to liberate India. (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (3) The correct spelling is "efforts".

 

2. The cruelties (1)/ of history (2)/ are perpetrated (3)/ in the name of nobal causes. (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (4) The correct spelling is "noble"

 

3. The fear of Universal (1)/ destruction (2)/ hangs (3)/ over us like a dark cloud (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (5) All correct

 

4. The environment has a profounde (1)/ influence (2)/ on the way a society (3)/ develops (4)/ All correct(5)
A: (1) The correct spelling is "profound".

 

5. The atmosphere (1)/ was fragrent (2)/ with the scent (3)/ of rose flowers (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (2) The correct spelling is "Fragrant".

 

6. Shareholders used to be liabel (1)/ for the debts (2)/ of the company in proportion (3)/ to the size of their holdings (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (1) The correct spelling is "liable"

 

7. The popular (1)/ understanding of the (2)/ incident (3)/ was that he had resigned (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (2) The word "outcome" should be used in place of "understanding".

 

8. He was felicitated (1)/ for his roll (2)/ in resolving (3)/ the conflict in the region (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (2) The correct spelling is "role".

 

9. He firmly (1)/ denied (2)/ that the document (3)/ existed (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (5) All correct.

 

10. Today banks offer (1)/ the facility (2)/ of instint (3)/ transfer of funds to their customers (4) All correct (5)
A: (3) The correct spelling is "instant".

 

11. Their sole (1)/ concern (2)/ was how they could assisst (3)/ their colleague in his hour of crisis (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (3) The correct spelling is "assist".

 

12. We shall be disabled (1)/ to justify (2)/ this excess (3)/ expenditure (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (1) replace disabled with "capable"

 

13. The lease on these premises (1)/ has expired (2)/ and we have incured (3)/ significant debt (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (3) The correct spelling is ''incurred''.

 

14. Your statement (1)/ that you received (2)/ no prier (3)/ intimation is not plausible (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (3) The correct spelling is "prior".

 

15. Mr. Sharma refused to acknowledge (1)/ that he had committed (2)/ an error(3)/ while taking that desicion (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (4) The correct spelling is "decision".

 

16. The importanse (1)/ given to context oriented (2)/ approach has affected the methodology (3)/ of this project (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (1) The correct spelling is "importance"

 

17. Almost all risk-taking (1)/ work involve (2)/ decision (3)/ making under uncertainity (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (1) The appropriate word should be ''risky".

 

18. In developing (1)/ countries there is increesing (2)/ concern for fostering (3)/ human potential (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (2) The correct spelling is "increasing".

 

19. I want to express (1)/ my appreciation (2)/ of the help offered (3)/ by my former colleages. (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (4) The correct spelling is "colleagues".

 

20. The research (1)/ reported (2)/ in this valume (3)/ assumes importance (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (3) The correct spelling is "volume".

 

21. Almost (1)/ two hours have elapsed (2)/ since he fell (3)/ asleep (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (5) All correct

 

22. Have you noticed (1)/ that the country is on the brink (2)/ of a serious (3)/ dissaster? (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (4) The correct spelling is "disaster".

 

23. The messanger's (1)/ story that appeared (2)/ incredible (3)/ has turned out/ to be gruesome (4) All correct (5)
A: (1) The correct spelling is "messenger's"

 

24. She shade (1)/ tears as if to display her grief (2)/ but they were not a genuine (3)/ expression of sorrow (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (1) The appropriate word is "shed"

 

25. As a consequence (1)/ of (2)/ that earthquack (3)/ many families have been ruined (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (3) The correct spelling is "earthquake".

 

26. Rising (1)/ prices (2)/ of foodgrains will have an adverse (3)/ impac on developing/ countries. (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (3) The correct spelling is "impact"

 

27. To deal effectively (1)/ with a crisis (2)/ quick decisions (3)/ are requited (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (4) The correct spelling is "required"

 

28. The IT company has succeeded (1)/ in achiving high growth rate despite (2)/ facing (3)/ several problems. (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (5) All correct

 

29. On an average (1)/ there are very few persons willingly (2)/ to take on (3)/ such responsibility (4)/ All correct (5)
A: (2) The appropriate word is "willing"

 

30. More than halve (1)/ of the budget (2)/ has been spent (3)/ on modernising the factory (4)/ All correct(5)
A: (1) The appropriate word is "half".

DEGREES OF COMPARISON

PRACTICE TEST

★ Change the sentences into other degrees of comparison as mentioned in the brackets.
1. The Pacific is the deepest ocean in the world. (Change into Comparative Degree)
1. Very few oceans in the world are deeper than the Pacific.
2. The Pacific is more deeper than any other ocean in the world.
3. The Pacific is deeper than any ocean in the world.
4. The Pacific is deeper than any other ocean in the world.

 

2. Ooty is one of the coolest places in India. (Change into Positive Degree)
1. Many other places in India are not very cool as Ooty
2. Very few places in India are as cool as Ooty
3. No other place in India is as cool as Ooty
4. Ooty is as cool as most other places in India

 

3. The lion is the wildest animal. (Change into Comparative Degree)
1. The lion is more wild than other animals         2. The lion is wilder than any animal
3. No animal is wilder than the lion                     4. The lion is wilder than any other animal

 

4. The humming bird is smaller than many other birds. (Change into Positive Degree)
1. Very few humming birds are as small as other birds
2. Very few birds are as small as the humming bird
3. Many other birds are as small as the humming bird
4. The humming bird is as small as many other birds

 

5. This film is worse than any other film. (Change into Superlative Degree)
1. No other film is worst than this film 2. This is one of the worst films
3. This is the worst film 4. This is the most worst film

 

6. Gandhiji is more famous than most other Indian leaders. (Change into Superlative Degree)
1. Gandhiji is one of the most famous Indian leaders
2. Gandhiji is one of the famousest Indian leaders
3. Gandhiji is one of the best famous leaders in India
4. Gandhiji is the most famous Indian leader

 

7. Prevention is better than cure. (Change into Positive Degree)
1. Cure is not as good as prevention         2. Prevention is not as bad as cure
3. Cure is not good over prevention          4. Cure is not more good than prevention

 

ANSWERS: 1-4; 2-2; 3-4; 4-2; 5-3; 6-1; 7-1.

ఎస్ఎస్‌సీ సీజీఎల్ (టైర్-I) మోడల్ పేపర్ - 1

FIT HIT TO HIT HAI INDIA

National

Govt clears defence acquisition

 On 2nd July 2020, the union defence ministry approved procurement of 33 frontline fighter jets, several missile systems and other military hardware at a cost of Rs. 38,900 crore to intensify the combat capability of the armed forces.
    The 21 MiG-29 fighter jets will be procured from Russia, while 12 Su-30 MKI aircraft will be bought from Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL). 
    The proposal to upgrade the existing 59 MiG-29 aircraft was also approved. The ministry also approved procurement of 248 ASTRA Beyond Visual Range (BVR) air-to-air missile systems. 
    The decisions were taken at a meeting of the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) chaired by Defence Minister Rajnath Singh. The DAC is the highest decision-making body of the defence ministry on procurement.

 

Drug Discovery Hackathon

 Drug Discovery Hackathon launched by the Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare Dr. Harsh Vardhan and the Union Minister for Human Resource Development Ramesh Pokhriyal ‘Nishank’ on 2nd July 2020.
    It is first of its kind national initiative for supporting drug discovery process and work towards developing anti-COVID drugs.
    The Hackathon attracts international talent. The hackathon will be open to participation from across the globe from professionals, faculty, researchers and students from varied fields like computer science, chemistry, pharmacy, medical sciences, basic sciences and biotechnology.
    The hackathon consists of challenges that are posted as problem statements and, are based on specific drug discovery topics which are open to the participants to solve.

 

Fit India Movement

A Webinar 'Fit Hai to Hit hai India' was attended by Union Minister of Sports and Youth Affairs Kiren Rijiju and Union Human Resource Development Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal 'Nishank' on 3rd July 2020  as a part of  Fit India Movement. While interacting with the students, they said that Fit India Movement is becoming a people's movement in the true sense. The movement aims to make the countrymen fit and make the country a great sporting nation. 
    The Sports Minister said that his government will soon launch Target Olympic Podium Scheme (TOPS) for junior athletes in the country to produce Olympic champions by 2028.
    2016 Olympics silver medalist PV Sindhu and the Indian football team skipper Sunil Chhetri also participated in the webinar.

 

PM FME scheme

Pradhan Mantri Scheme for Formalization of MicroFood Processing Enterprises (PM FME) launched as a part of Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan. The scheme will be implemented over five years from 2020-21 to 2024-25 with an outlay of Rs. 10,000 crore.
    The scheme provides financial, technical, and business support for up-gradation of existing micro food processing enterprises.
    The scheme would generate a total investment of Rs. 35,000 crore and generate 9 lakh skilled and semi-skilled employment and benefit 8 lakh units through access to information, training, better exposure, and formalization Under the scheme, the existing individual micro food processing units desirous of upgrading their units can avail credit-linked capital subsidy at 35 percent of the eligible project cost with a maximum ceiling of Rs. 10 lakh per unit.


World’s largest COVID Care Centre

 On 5th July 2020, the Sardar Patel Covid Care Centre, the world largest COVID care centre was  inaugurated by Delhi Lieutenant Governor Anil Baijal.  
    The centre is having 10,000-bed facility roughly the size of 20 football fields. It has two segments - a COVID Care Centre (CCC), where asymptomatic positive coronavirus cases will be treated and a Dedicated COVID Health Care (DCHC), which will treat symptomatic cases and have an oxygen support system.    
    Delhi government provided administrative support and the Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) is the nodal agency operating the centre. Volunteers from the religious sect of Radha Soami Beas also help to run the centre.

 

First Plasma Bank 

 Delhi Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal inaugurated the Plasma Bank to treat Covid-19 patients on 2nd July 2020. The facility has been set up at the Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi. This Plasma Bank will remove the hurdles faced by the patients to get Plasma therapy. The bank can store over 200 units of plasma, which can be accessed by any hospital - both government-run and private - treating Covid-19 patients.
    The Convalescent plasma therapy uses a blood component called plasma, containing the virus-fighting antibodies, from a person who has recovered from the infection. When administered to a Covid-19 patient, it should help the patient’s immune system fight off the virus.

 

International

Permanent Representative to UN

Indra Mani Pandey was appointed as India's next Permanent Representative to the United Nations and other international organisations in Geneva. He is an Indian Foreign Service officer, currently serving as an additional secretary in the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA). He served in Indian missions in Damascus, Cairo, Islamabad, Kabul, Muscat and Geneva.
 

36th ASEAN Summit

The 36th Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) meeting was held on 1st July 2020 and chaired by Vietnam. The virtual meeting focused on COVID-19 epidemic response, post-pandemic recovery and further cooperation with partners. The theme of this summit is "Cohesive and Responsive ASEAN". The ASEAN leaders stressed the importance of maintaining and promoting peace, security, stability, safety and freedom of navigation and over-flight above the South China Sea.
The summit also discussed the regional comprehensive post-pandemic recovery plans, implement initiatives,  including establishing the ASEAN COVID-19 response fund, setting up a reserve for medical supplies to meet urgent needs during epidemics, building the ASEAN standard procedures of epidemic response in case of a health emergency.

 

Johannesson again

Iceland's President Gudni Johannesson was re-elected with more than 90% of the votes. This is his     second 4-year term.  
    The president is largely symbolic, but he or she does have the power to veto legislation or submit it to a referendum. He is an expert on political history, diplomacy and the constitution studies.

 

G20 Education Minister's Meeting 

G20 Extraordinary Virtual Education Minister's Meeting was held on 27 June 2020, and India was represented by Union HRD minister Ramesh Pokhriyal 'Nishank.
    The minister shared India's initiative on Digital Education in the time of corona. The session was held to know how member nations can collaborate to further the cause of education.
    The minister also shared efforts of HRD Ministry to promote digital learning during a COVID-19  crisis including platforms like DIKSHA, SWAYAM, National Digital Library, e-PG pathshala, etc.
    India is going to eVIDYA programme, a common platform for all e-resources for digital education under the concept of ‘One Nation One Digital Program.’ The government is planning a similar concept for education TV channels, 'One Class One Channel', where one TV channel will be dedicated per grade.

 

Others

National Doctor's Day

 National Doctor's Day celebrated on 1 July, to thank the doctors and physicians for their service to humanity. The theme of this year's Doctors Day is 'Lessen the mortality of COVID 19'.  On this day, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said that the mother gives birth to us and the doctor gives us rebirth many times. 
    The first National Doctor's day was celebrated in July 1991. In India, this day marks the birth anniversary of Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy. He was one of the most renowned physicians in India and former Chief Minister of West Bengal. 

 

Mahalanobis Award 

Prof.P.C. Mahalanobis Lifetime Achievement Award conferred on the former Reserve Bank of India Governor C. Rangarajan in recognition of his contribution to official statistics.    
    Dr.Rangarajan was given the award on the Statistics Day on June 29, at a function held in virtual mode. In the award accepting ceremony, he hoped that the National Statistical Commission will be given a   statutory form. The statistics day celebrated on the birth anniversary of Prof. P C Mahalanobis, on 29th June, in recognition of his invaluable contribution in establishing the National Statistical System.

 

Humanitarian Award

In the 20th edition of the 'BET Awards', the Humanitarian Award was conferred on Popstar Beyonce. The American award show established in 2001 by the Black Entertainment Television Network, aims to celebrate African Americans and other minorities in music, acting, sports and other fields of entertainment over the past year. She is being honoured for her longstanding philanthropic work, including her recent COVID-19 relief efforts.  Beyonce dedicated her honour to all those who have been marching in support of racial equality.
 

Model Questions


1. K.K. Venugopal reappointed as…
    1) Attorney General of India    2) Chief Justice of Supreme Court   
    3) Chief Information Commissioner   4) Chief Election Commissioner     5) Chief Advisor to Prime Minister

 

2. Tushar Mehta reappointed as….
    1) Governor of Madhya Pradesh            2) President of CII   
    3) Rajyasabha Member           4) Deputy Governor of RBI           5) Solicitor General of India

 

3.  Lazarus Chakwera sworn in as Malawi President. What is the capital of Malawi?
    1) Antananarivo          2) Lilongwe           3) Bamako          4) Nouakchott           5) Port Louis

 

4. National Chartered Accountants Day observed on..
    1) 3 July       2) 29 June     3) 8 July    4) 1 July     5) 28 June

 

5.  New Prime Minister of Ireland is…..
    1) Jean Castex            2) Emmanuel Macron   
    3) Katrín Jakobsdottir     4) Micheal Martin     5) Erna Solberg

 

6.   Who stepped down as the chairman of ICC? 
    1) Ravi Shastri      2) Harsha Bhogle    
    3) Shashank Manohar     4) David Warner   5) Manu Sawhney

KEY: 1-1; 2-5; 3-2; 4-4; 5-4; 6-3.
 

 

STREE TO EMPOWER WOMEN!

International

India-ASEAN youth dialogue

The third India-ASEAN youth dialogue was held between 8-10 June 2020. In this dialogue, India and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) pledged to enhance cooperation in ways to effectively and constructively channelizing youthful energy. 
    There was a discussion about the revival and re-establishment of Nalanda University in Bihar as a seat of learning was a big step in the direction towards channelizing youthful energy. 
    Special Courses for Young ASEAN Diplomats, Exchange programmes for young farmers, Media Exchange Programmes also came for discussion during the dialogue. The dialogue also acknowledged the launching of 1,000 PhD fellowships for ASEAN students at the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs).


India and Laos

 India and Laos exchanged views on the health and economic challenges posed by the global COVID-19 pandemic. The Prime Minister of India commended the effective measures undertaken by the Government of Laos to contain the spread of the pandemic in Laos. Laos Prime Minister Dr. Thongloun Sisoulith thanked Indian Prime Minister for India’s support for the development of Laos in capacity building and scholarships.


Annual Cost of Living Survey 

 Hong Kong was named the most expensive city in the world for the expats mainly due to its high housing prices as per the annual Mercer’s 26th annual cost of living survey. Ashgabat (Turkmenistan) and Tokyo (Japan) got second and third position respectively.  
    The survey measures the cost of 200 items in 209 cities. These items include housing, transportation, food, clothing, household goods and entertainment. Mumbai is the 60th most expensive city for expatriates globally. 
    Tunis in Tunisia, Windhoek (Namibia), Tashkent (Uzbekistan), Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) and Karachi (Pakistan) were ranked at the bottom as the least expensive cities in the world.

 

EXIM bank LOC to Malawi

Export-Import Bank of India (Exim Bank) extended Line of Credit (LOC) of $ 215.68 million to the Government of the Republic of Malawi for drinking water supply schemes and other development projects. By this, the Exim Bank placed 260 LOCs, covering 62 countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), with credit commitments of around $ 25.68 billion.
 

Environment Performance Index 

India ranks 168th out of the 180 countries in the 12th Environment Performance Index (EPI) released by Yale and Columbia universities.  Denmark topped the list. The index is based on 32 performance indicators across 11 categories. India performed the worst regionally on all five key parameters for environmental health-sanitation, drinking water, air quality, heavy metals, and waste management. The index becomes an important tool for assessing countries’ progress with regards to Sustainable Development Goals. EPI rankings highlighted the environmental challenges that India faces. India needs to focus on fixing air & water quality and biodiversity. Beyond providing issue-by-issue and country-by-country results, the 2020 EPI offers new insights into the factors associated with success on environmental sustainability goals.

 

National

STREE

 Hyderabad City Security Council (HCSC) in association with Hyderabad City Police launched a programme 'STREE' (She Triumphs through Respect, Equality, and Empowerment) in a bid to support and empower women against domestic violence and abuse. The programme aims to create a platform for women from various walks of the community to come together. It is a joint forum for women and Police to work together on issues of safety and security of women and girl. This programme creates awareness among the women on their rights, entitlements, laws and support systems available while building a network of partners to ensure women's safety, equality and empowerment.

Captain Arjun

 Central Railway zone launched Robotic ‘Captain Arjun’ to intensify the screening and surveillance. Captain Arjun ((Always be Responsible and Just Use to be Nice) is equipped with a motion sensor, one PTZ camera and one Dome camera. The cameras use artificial intelligence algorithms to track suspicious and antisocial activities in the railway station. It has thermal screening and records the temperature in a digital display panel. It is also having a sensor-based sanitizer and mask dispenser and can speak in the local language.


NIRF Rankings 2020

On 11 June 2020, the Union Human Resource Development minister Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank released the fifth National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) Ranking 2020. IIT Madras topped the list, followed by IISc Bengaluru and IIT Delhi in the ‘overall category’. 
    In the Engineering stream, IIT Madras, IIT Delhi and IIT Bombay got first three ranks whereas in the management category IIM Ahmedabad, IIM Bangalore, IIM Calcutta topped the list. 
    In the University rankings, IISc Bengaluru Jawaharla Nehru University Delhi and Benaras Hindu Universities got first three ranks. Amrita Vidya Vishwapeetham got 4th rank. For the first time, dental colleges have also been ranked this year. Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Science, Delhi bagged the first rank. AIIMS New Delhi topped the list of medical colleges in India.

 

Aarogya Path

 The government of India launched a national healthcare supply chain portal ‘Aarogya Path’, to provide real-time availability of critical healthcare supplies. In the times of COVID-19 pandemic nationwide, the ability to produce and deliver the critical items may be delayed due to a variety of reasons.
    Aarogya P.ath helps manufacturers and suppliers to reach a wide network of customers efficiently, overcoming gaps in connectivity between them and potential demand centers like nearby pathological laboratories, medical stores, hospitals. 


Others

World Food Safety Day

 World Food Safety Day is celebrated on 7th June to draw global attention to the health consequences of contaminated food. This year theme is 'Food safety, everyone's business'. On this eve, the World Health Organization (WHO) had given a call to promote global food safety awareness.     
    Food safety has a critical role in assuring that food stays safe at every stage of the food chain - from production to harvest, processing, storage, distribution, all the way to preparation and consumption. 
Food safety is a shared responsibility in which everybody has a role to play.


World Food Prize

 Indian American Soil scientist Dr. Rattan Lal was conferred with the prestigious World Food Prize 2020. He is an expert in soil science by helping millions of small farmers around the world with his work on increasing food production and recycling of nutrients. 
    He invented many soil-saving techniques that benefit the livelihoods of more than 500 million smallholder farmers by saving hundreds of millions of hectares of natural tropical ecosystems. 
    The World Food Prize was created by Nobel Peace Prize laureate Norman Borlaug in 1986 to recognize scientists and others who have improved the quality and availability of food and the recipient gets $2,50,000.


Richard Dawkins Award

 The famous lyricist and screenwriter Javed Akhtar became the first Indian to win the Richard Dawkins Award. The award will be given to a distinguished individual from the worlds of science, scholarship, education, or entertainment. The award was instituted by the Center for Inquiry (CFI).  
    The award named after British evolutionary biologist and author Richard Dawkins, known for his landmark book “The Selfish Gene” and his advocacy of atheism and scientific thinking. 

 

Model Questions


1.  Gairsain (Bhararisen) was declared as the summer capital of..
    1) Chhattisgarh          2) Uttarakhand      3) Jharkhand        4) Himachal Pradesh  
    5) Haryana 

 

2.  Who was appointed as the new Ambassador and Permanent Representative of India (PRI) to the World Trade Organization (WTO)?
    1) Vasudha Mishra            2) Pratibha Parker       
    3) Brajendra Navnit          4) Periasamy Kumaran
    5) Deepak Mittal

 

3.  Among the bigger states, which state got top rank in the Food Safety Index, released by Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)?
    1) Gujarat                       2) Tamil Nadu        
    3) Maharashtra            4) Andhra Pradesh      
    5) Telangana

 

4.  Who was appointed as senior advisor to the Executive Director (ED) World Bank recently?
    1) Govinda Rajulu Chintala      2) Anil Kishora     
    3) Rajeev Topno     4) Birupaksha Mishra   5) Sanjay Agarwal

 

5.  In the QS World University Ranking 2021, which Indian University/ Institution grabbed the 172 rank?
    1) IISC Bengaluru    2) IIT Delhi      3) IIT Ropar     4) IIT Bombay    5) IIT Hyderabad

 

6.  Indian Navy opened Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle Complex recently in…
    1) Chennai    2) Kochi     3) Mumbai      4) Visakhapatnam    5) Cuttack

 

7.  World Day Against Child Labour observed on …
    1) 1 July     2) 8 June    3) 12 June    4) 22 June     5) 2 June

 

8.  Which state got first rank in wheat procurement on support price by purchasing over 1.27 crore tonnes from farmers, which accounts for 33 % of all wheat procured in the ountry
    1) Rajasthan     2) Uttar Padesh       
    3) Madhya Pradesh      4) Punjab    5) Haryana

 

9.  What is the theme of World Ocean Day (WOD) 2020 that observed on 8th June every year?
    1) Oceans are the Life    2) Ocean and Climate
    3) Innovation for a Sustainable Ocean.    4) Diversity and the Safety of Ocean     5) Blue Revolution and SDG

 

Key: 1-2 2-3 3-1 4-3 5-4 6-4 7-3 8-3 9-3

 

ఎస్ఎస్‌సీ సీజీఎల్ (టైర్-I) మోడల్ పేపర్ - 2

ఎస్ఎస్‌సీ సీజీఎల్ (టైర్-I) మోడల్ పేపర్ - 3

GIRISH CHANDRA MURMU WAS APPOINTED AS..?

National

Smart India Hackathon (Software) - 2020 
The Grand Finale of 4th edition of Smart India Hackathon (Software) - 2020 was launched virtually in New Delhi on 1 August 2020 by Union Human Resource Development Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal 'Nishank'.  PM Narendra Modi also addressed the Hackathon.
It  is the World's biggest open innovation model involving more than 4.5 lakh students, 2000+ educational institutions, 1000+ mentors, 1500+ evaluators, 70+ problem submitting agencies including central ministries, state government departments and private industries thereby having true PPP (Public Private Partnership) model. The Hackathon (software) emphasized on culture of Innovation for Atmanirbhar Bharat. 

 

 Vidyarthi Vigyan Manthan  

'Vidyarthi Vigyan Manthan', 2020-21 was launched by Health and Family Welfare Minister Dr Harsh Vardhan on 1 August 2020. 
It is a national programme for popularizing science among school students of Class 6th to 11th.  He said that it is a platform to identify the talent in the field of science and to promote the scientific approach among the students.

 

Sri Ram Temple in Ayodhya 

On 5 August 2020, Prime Minister Narendra Modi performed Bhoomi Pooja and laid the foundation stone of Sri Ram temple in Ayodhya. Modi released a commemorative postage stamp on the ‘Sri Ram Janmabhoomi Mandir’. 
He planted a Parijat sapling, considered a divine plant, ahead of foundation stone-laying of Ram temple.

 

Rafale fighter jets landed

The five French Rafale fighter jets arrived India and landed at Haryana's Ambala airbase to join the Indian Air Force. 
The delivery of all 36 aircraft will be completed on schedule by the end of 2021. Rs. 59,000 crore deal was signed on September 23, 2016 for 36 Rafale jets from French aerospace major Dassault Aviation.

 

National Education Policy 

To make India a global knowledge superpower, the New Education Policy (NEP) approved by the Union Cabinet on 29 July 2020. HRD Ministry to be renamed as education ministry.
The policy set to bring major changes in primary and high school education, allowing top foreign universities, new evaluation models, getting vocational education (Lok Vidya) and a move towards institutes including IITs turning multi-disciplinary.
The extant 10 + 2 structure in school education will be modified with a new pedagogical and curricular restructuring of 5 + 3 + 3 + 4 covering ages 3-18. Currently, children in the age group of 3-6 are not covered in the 10 + 2 structure as Class 1 begins at age 6. 
In the new 5 + 3 + 3 + 4 structure, a strong base of Early Childhood Care and Education from age 3 is included. Wherever possible, the medium of instruction until at least Grade 5, but preferably till Grade 8 and beyond, will be the home language/ mother tongue/ local language/ regional language. Bag less days will be encouraged.
A National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy will be set up.  Higher Education Commission of India (HECI) will be set up as a single overarching umbrella body for the entire higher education, excluding medical and legal education.
By 2040, all higher education institutions become multidisciplinary institutions that offer undergraduate and graduate programmes, with high quality teaching, research, and community engagement. 
Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher education including vocational education must be increased from 26.3% to 50% by 2035. National Research Foundation (NRF) will be established.
Many recommendations of Former ISRO chief Dr K Kasturirangan, who led the nine-member team that authored the National Education Policy 2019 draft were taken.

 

International
Supreme Court building   in Mauritius

On 30 July 2020, the Prime Minister Narendra Modi and the Prime Minister of Mauritius Pravind Jugnauth jointly inaugurated the new Supreme Court building in Port Louis, the capital of Mauritius through video conferencing. 
The new Supreme Court building was completed with Indian assistance as part of India's thrust on cooperation with countries in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR). This landmark project has been completed with grant assistance of $ 28.12 million from the Government of India.
It is one of the five projects under the $ 353 million Special Economic Package (SEP) extended by India in 2016.

 

India-UN Development Partnership Fund

India contributed $ 15.46 million to the India-UN Development Partnership Fund to support developing nations in its developmental priorities across all the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).
India-UN Development Partnership Fund is managed by the UNOSSC (United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation) and implemented under the leadership of partner developing countries leveraging the strengths of United Nations Agencies, Funds and Programmes.
The tranche of $ 15.46 million includes $ 6 million to the overall fund, in which all the developing countries are eligible for partnership, and $ 9.46 million dedicated to the Commonwealth countries.

 

SCO Health Ministers  Digital Meet

On 24 July 2020, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Health Minister's Digital Meet was held virtually. Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare digitally participated. This was chaired by Mr. Mikhail Murashko, Minister of Health of the Russian Federation.
 

Nuclear Energy Production
UAE became the first country in the Arab World to produce nuclear energy.
Barakah plant is located in the Al Dhafra region of Abu Dhabi. It was built by a consortium led by the Korea Electric Power Corporation. UAE has substantial oil and gas reserves, but it has made huge investments in developing alternative energy sources, including nuclear and solar power.

 

BRICS Environment Ministers Meeting

On 30 July 2020, the Environment Ministers of the five BRICS nations (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) participated in the 6th BRICS Environment Ministers' Meeting through a video conference.
The meeting was held under the presidency of Russia. India will assume the BRICS Presidency in 2021.
Union Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar participated on behalf of India. India launched the National Clean Air Programme, the goal of which is to reduce particulate pollution by 20-30% relative to 2017 levels by 2024. 

In 2015 India launched the Air Quality Index monitoring in 10 cities, now extended to 122 cities.
 

Others

Sanskrit Diwas

To spread awareness, promote and revive the ancient India Language Sanskrit, World Sanskrit Day or Sanskrit Diwas also known as Vishvasamskritadinam celebrated on Shraavana Poornima. This year Sanskrit Day falls on 3 August. Sanskrit Diwas was announced by the government of India in 1969.  
 

Prem Bhatia Awards, 2020

Dipankar Ghose, the Indian Express Special Correspondent was conferred with the Prem Bhatia Award for political reporting for his work on issues related to the Covid-19 pandemic including the migrant labour crisis.   
 

International Tiger Day

To create awareness about tiger conservation, every year the International Tiger Day observed on 29 July. Union Environment minister Prakash Javedkar informed that India has 2,967 tigers as per the latest Tiger Census.   Project Tiger was launched in 1973 with just 9 tiger reserves but now there are 50 reserves.
 

Gustave Trouve Award

'Aditya', India's first solar-powered ferry which commenced operations three years ago in Vembanad backwaters, Kerala won the prestigious Gustave Trouve Award for Excellence in Electric Boats and Boating. 
 

Model Questions

1. Mohamed Irfaan Ali became the new president of …
    1) Argentina           2) Philippines 
    3) Guyana             4) Gabon   
    5) South Sudan

 

2. Girish Chandra Murmu was appointed as …
    1) Lt. Governor of Delhi
    2) Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG)
    3) Chief Election Commissioner
    4) Chairman, Staff Selection Commission
    5) Governor of Madhya Pradesh

 

3. Former Union minister Manoj Sinha was appointed as the new governor of ..
    1) Jammu & Kashmir   
    2) Uttar Pradesh     3) Mizoram  
    4) Manipur              5) Karnataka

 

4. The list of important days/ week observations given. The wrong combination is..
    1) National Handloom day: 7 August     
    2) Breast Feeding Week: 1-7 August 
    3) World day against trafficking in persons:  30 July  
    4) CRPF Raising Day:  27 July  
    5) All of above correct

 

5. British Grand Prix F1  formula race won by..
    1) Sebastian Vettel 
    2) Lewis Hamilton  3) Valtteri  Bottas  
    4) Max Verstappen 
    5) Charles Leclerc

 

6. 'Great Prophet 14' is the military exercise of …
    1) UAE       2) Iran       3) Pakistan   
    4) Iraq        5) Kuwait

 

key:  1-3  2-2  3-1 4-5  5-2  6-2
 

 

ONE SUN ONE WORLD ONE GRID

National

Instant PAN 

    On 28 May 2020, the Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman launched a facility for instant allotment of online PAN (Permanent Account Number) card by giving the Aadhaar details.
    Only those applicants who have a valid Aadhaar number and have a mobile number registered with Aadhaar can avail this facility.
    This facility was introduced to ease the process of PAN allotment. The allotment process is paperless and an electronic PAN (e-PAN) is issued to the applicants at free of cost. 


Repo rate Reduced 

    RBI governor Shaktikanta Das announced a cut in the repo rate by 40 basis points to 4 per cent, while the reverse repo rate was simultaneously reduced to 3.35 per cent, after the Monetary Policy Committee meeting held on 22 May 2020.
    The marginal standing facility (MSF) rate and the Bank Rate reduced to 4.25 per cent from 4.65 per cent and he also said that the loan moratorium will be extended by three months till 31 August 2020, making it a six-month moratorium.
    As a part of monetary policy review, RBI announced few measures that can be divided into four categories to improve the functioning of markets, to support exports and imports, to ease financial stress by giving relief on debt servicing and better access to working capital and to ease financial constraints faced by State Governments.

 

PMMSY

    To bring Blue Revolution through sustainable and responsible development of fisheries sector, the Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi had given its approval for implementation of the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY).
    The Scheme will be implemented during 5 years between FY 2020-2025. PMMSY aims to enhance fish production to 220 lakh metric tons by 2024-25 from 137.58 lakh metric tons in 2018-19 at an average annual growth rate of about 9% and generate about 55 lakh direct and indirect employment opportunities in the fisheries sector along with the supply and value chain.
    The PMMSY had two components namely, Central Sector Scheme and Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) at a total estimated investment of Rs. 20,050 crore comprising of Central share of Rs. 9,407 crore, State share of Rs. 4,880 crore and Beneficiaries share of Rs. 5,763 crore.

 

Agneeprastha

    The foundation stone for a Missile Park named ‘Agneeprastha’ was laid down by Commodore Rajesh Debnath at INS Kalinga, Visakhapatnam.
    The missile park will have replicas of missiles and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) that showcase the evolution of missiles handled by the unit.
    2 MegaWatt(MW) solar photovoltaic plant was also commissioned at INS Kalinga to promote solar power to achieve the objective to achieve 100 GW of solar power by 2022 as part of the National Solar Mission.

 

GDP growth dips 

    As per data released by the National Statistical Office (NSO) on 29 May 2020, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth slipped to 3.1 % in the January-March quarter of 2019-20, reflected the impact of the first week of the COVID-19 lockdown which began on March 25 and slow down of economic activities across the world. 
    The GDP expanded by 5.7 % in the corresponding quarter of 2018-19. It means the Economic growth slowed to an 11-year low of 4.2% in 2019-20, compared to that of 6.1% growth in 2018-19.

 

PAi

    To improve digital financial inclusion, National Payment Corporation of India (NPCI) launched an artificial intelligence (AI) based chatbot, PAi. The chatbot creates awareness around its products like FASTag, RuPay, UPI, AePS on a real time basis. 
    PAi is available on a 24x7 basis and users can ask their queries via text or voice on the websites of NPCI, RuPay, and UPI Chalega. The global RuPay Cardholders also can access PAi chatbot.

 

FSDC

    Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman chaired the 22nd meeting of Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC) held in New Delhi through video conferencing on 28 May 2020.
    The Council took note of the initiatives taken by the Government and the regulators in the recent months to help revive the economy, in view of disruptions caused by the coronavirus pandemic and the ongoing lockdown.
    The meeting reviewed the current global and domestic macro-economic situation, financial stability and vulnerabilities issues, major issues likely to be faced by banks and other financial institutions.

 

International 
Tsai Ing-wen again

    Tsai Ing-wen was sworn in as the president of Taiwan for the second term. She represents the ruling Democratic Progressive Party which strongly advocates the country’s formal independence from China.
    She said that Taiwan plays a more active role in the peace, stability and prosperity of the Indo-Pacific region and opposes ‘one country, two systems’ theory.
    On the other hand, China sees Tsai Ing-wen as a threat and has repeatedly said it will use force to prevent the independence of the island nation. 

 

OSOWOG

    India has come up with a ‘One Sun One World One Grid’ (OSOWOG) initiative to develop and build a global ecosystem of interconnected renewable energy resources that can be seamlessly shared.
    The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) started the process to design a road map and institutional framework for implementing the ambitious OSOWOG plan. 
    The initiative plans to build global consensus about sharing solar resources among more than 140 countries of West Asia and South- East Asia.
    International Solar Alliance (ISA) was the initiation of India which aims to deploy over 1,000 GW of solar generation capacity globally. It also mobilizes investment of over $1 trillion by 2030.

 

New PM of Lesotho

    On 20 May 2020, Moeketsi Majoro was sworn in as Lesotho’s new Prime Minister. 
    Majoro was the former finance minister of the nation, who promised to tackle COVID-19.  He said that removal of poverty and unemployment his main priorities.
    The ex-Prime Minister Thomas Thabane, resigned under pressure over a scandal involving the killing of his wife.

 

India chairs WHO’s Executive Board

    Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare Dr Harsh Vardhan was elected as the Chair of World Health Organization (WHO)’s Executive Board on 22 May 2020. 
    He assumed this post at a very challengingtime Dr. Harsh Vardhan, who took over from Dr. Hiroki Nakatani of Japan, would chair the 148th session of the Executive Board in January 2021. The main function of the Executive Board is to implement the decisions and policies of the Health Assembly and advice and facilitate its work.

 

NDB new Head

    The board of governors of New Development Bank (NDB) unanimously elected Brazil’s Marcos Prado Troyjo as the president, replacing KV Kamath of India.
    New Development Bank is a multilateral financial institution set up to mobilise resources for development projects in BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) and other emerging economies.
    The board of governors also appointed Anil Kishora as vice president, who worked as the deputy managing director and chief risk officer of the State Bank of India. Finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman attended the board meeting through video-conference


BRICS Heads of Tax Authorities meet

    BRICS Heads of Tax Authorities meeting was held via video conference. The meeting was hosted by Russia on 29 May 2020, which currently holds the BRICS Presidency.
    Dr. Ajay Bhushan Pandey, the Finance Secretary represented India. The meeting discussed the exchange of information under tax treaties among BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) to counter corruption, money laundering and terrorist financing.

 

India helps UNRWA

    The Government of India contributed $ 2 million to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) in support of the Agency’s core programmes and services, including education, health care, relief and social services. 
    It should be noted that India increased its annual financial contribution to UNRWA from $1.25 million in 2016 to $ 5 million in 2018 and 2019, and pledged another $ 5 million for 2020. 
    United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) thanked for India's financial support to keep its basic services operating, especially under the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

Others

International Day of UN Peacekeepers

    International Day of United Nations Peacekeepers celebrated to honour the contribution of fallen security personnel on 29 May every year. 
    On this day, people pay tribute to military, police or civilians who served in UN Peacekeeping programs and operations. The theme is 'Women in Peacekeeping: A Key to Peace’.
    The theme has been chosen as it is the 20th anniversary of the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security.

 

‘Gender Advocate of the year Award’

    The prestigious ‘United Nations Military Gender Advocate of the year Award’ conferred on Major Suman Gawani. She served as a peacekeeper with the United Nations Mission In South Sudan (UNMISS) in 2019. She received this award along with a Brazilian Naval Officer Commander Carla Monteiro de Castro Araujo from the UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres during an online ceremony organised at the UNO Headquarters, New York.
    She encouraged participation in joint military patrols to maintain gender balance and also trained the South Sudan government forces on Conflict-Related Sexual Violence related aspects.

 

Model Questions


1.  Which app became the world's largest contact tracing app reaching over 11 crore 40 lakh people in 40 days?
    1) Aarogya Bandhu    2) Aarogya AYUSH 
    3) Aarogya Setu     4) Aarogya Veda    5) Aarogya Ayur

 

2.  Ajit Jogi passed away recently. He was the first chief minister of..
    1) Chhattisgarh     2) Madhya Pradesh    3) Uttar Pradesh   4) Bihar     5) Rajasthan

 

3.  Asian Development Bank (ADB) declared a loan of $ 177 million loan to upgrade 450 km of state  highways and major district roads in..
    1) Maharashtra        2) Assam   
    3) Telangana      4) Andhra Pradesh    5) Jammu and Kashmir

 

4.  Which nation president declared to terminate the relationship with World Health Organisaiton over its handling of Corona virus?
    1) UK             2) USA          3) France      4) India      
    5) Japan

 

5.  Which state declared to launch "State Health Register" to maintain the health database of all its  citizens?
    1) Goa      2) Chhattisgarh     3) Karnataka     4) Haryana      5) Maharashtra 

 

6.  Maharaja Bir Bikram (MBB) Airport located in..?
    1) Mizoram      2) Sikkim      3) Arunachal Pradesh      4) Tripura      5) Meghalaya

 

7.  'Rozgar Setu Yozana introduced by which state to provide employment to skilled labourers?
    1) Gujarat       2) West Bengal       3) Madhya Pradesh      4) Odisha         5) Manipur

 

8.  Who got the ‘United Nations Military Gender Advocate of the year’ award? 
    1) Major Suman Gawani     2) Major Sultana Rupan    3) Major Suhani      4) Major Kalpana

 

9.  Who is the new prime minister of Lesotho?
    1) Moeketsi Majoro        2) Thomas Taban      3) Tsai Ing-wen        4) Hiroki Nakatani

 

KEY: 1-3; 2-1; 3-1; 4-2; 5-3; 6-4; 7-3; 8-1; 9-1.

FLYPAST TRIBUTE TO COVID HEROES

National

Lockdown Extended


    The third phase of lockdown with different relaxations in green, orange and red zones came into effect till the 17 of May 2020.
    According to the Home Ministry, activities prohibited throughout the country, irrespective of the zones are air, rail, metro travel, inter-state movement by road, schools, colleges and other educational, training and coaching institutions, hospitality services, including hotels and restaurants.
    Places that see large-scale public gatherings such as cinema halls, malls, gymnasiums, sports complexes etc will continue to remain shut and movement of individuals for all non-essential activities in all three zones from 7 am till 7 pm. 
    In the Red zones, the intensified surveillance protocols, contact tracing and 100% coverage of Aarogya Setu app. Containment zones will see house to house surveillance, home/ institutional quarantining of affected and clinical management. 
    With restrictions and social distancing, in the Red Zone the movement of individuals and vehicles with a maximum of 2 persons (besides the driver) in four-wheeler vehicles, and with no pillion rider in the case of two-wheelers allowed. The work in Special Economic Zones, Export Oriented Units, industrial estates and industrial townships allowed.   All Government offices, Food-processing units,  agriculture activities etc allowed.
    In Orange zones, the activities in Red zone are allowed and Inter-district movement of individuals and vehicles will be allowed also for permitted activities.
    In the Green zones, practically all day to day activities have been allowed barring congregations.
    Buses can operate with up to 50% seating capacity and bus depots can operate with up to 50% capacity. All goods traffic is to be permitted. No separate pass of any sort is needed for such movement. E-commerce for non-essentials and liquor sale are allowed.


Gratitude towards Covid warriors

    The three wings of defence forces joined hands together to show their gratitude towards the corona virus warriors on 3 May 2020.
    These covid heroes, including doctors, nurses, hygiene and sanitation staff, police personnel, media and several others engaged in maintenance of essential services and supplies have stead fastly contributed to the effort to prevent spread of Covid-19.
    From Srinagar to Thiruvananthapuram and Dibrugarh to Kachchh, the Army carried out various activities like laying wreath at the Police Memorials, honouring and felicitating health professions and emergency supply operatives. The armed forces say ‘thank you’ to COVID-19 warriors who are at the forefront of the battle against the deadly Coronavirus pandemic. Indian airforce paid tribute by showering petals and flypasts for the COVID-19 warriors. 
    The Navy and Indian Coast Gurad  ships formed formations near shores at select locations. Ships were illuminated at 25 locations covering the entire coastline of the country.

Kisan Sabha app

    The Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), the lab of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) launched an app called Kisan Sabha to resolve the problems related to the agricultural supply chain and freight transportation Management System.
    In the present situation of COVID-19 Lockdown, the farmers are looking for help in taking their  produce to the market as possible as early to get more prices. They are also in tense to procure seeds and fertilizer from the market. So a robust supply chain management is urgently required to facilitate the timely delivery of the produce at the best possible prices.
    The App was remotely launched by Director General, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) Dr. Trilochan Mohapatra on 1 May 2020.
    The App could be a one-stop solution for farmers, transporters and other entities engaged in the agriculture sector.


Task Force on NIP

    The task force under economic affairs secretary Atanu Chakraborty submitted its final report on the “national infrastructure pipeline” (NIP) to Finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman.
    The task force firmed up a road map for capital investments of Rs 111 lakh crore in infrastructure,  during the period FY 2020-25 pledging 71% of the expenditure for energy, roads, urban development and railways, and envisaging a key role for private investors.
    The final report identifies and highlights recent infrastructure trends in India as well as global in all sectors of infrastructure. It also captures sector progress, deficits and challenges.
    Out of the total expected capital expenditure of Rs. 111 lakh crore, projects worth Rs. 44 lakh crore (40% of NIP) are under implementation, projects worth Rs. 33 lakh crore (30%) are at conceptual stage and projects worth Rs. 22 lakh crore (20%) are under development Information regarding project stage are unavailable for projects worth Rs. 11 lakh crore (10%). 
    The Centre (39%) and the states (40%) are expected to have almost equal share in implementing the infrastructure pipeline, followed by the private sector (21%).


International

NAM summit

    Prime Minister Narendra Modi emphasized on coordinated approach to fight against COVID-19. 
    He attended virtual Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) Summit 4 May 2020 through Video Conference and said that the world needs a new template of globalization post COVID-19 based on fairness, equality and humanity. He said that the humanity is facing a major crisis in the wake of COVID-19 pandemic and NAM can contribute in dealing with it. He said the Non Aligned Movement can help promote global solidarity and it must remain inclusive.
    The PM also said “India is regarded as pharmacy of the world especially for affordable medicines and despite own needs during COVID-19 pandemic, it has ensured supply of medicines to 123 partner countries including 59 NAM members.” Without naming Pakistan, Modi said some countries are spreading “other deadly viruses” such as terrorism, fake news and doctored videos.


G20 Digital Economy Ministers meeting

    On 30 April 2020, an Extraordinary Virtual G20 Digital Economy Ministers meeting was convened to discuss the challenges posed by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Union Minister for Law & Justice, Communications and Electronics & IT Ravi Shankar Prasad attended the meeting. He called on the G20 to come out with a concrete Digital action plan to fight the global pandemic.
    G20 Digital Ministers agreed to leverage the potential of Digital medium to stop the spread of the pandemic and protect people. While the minister talked about work from home culture, he also spoke about the need for developing digitally connected and more resilient global supply chains supported by innovations.


BRICS for revival

    On 28 April 2020, the foreign Ministers of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and  South Africa) nations held a virtual meeting to discuss the impact of the crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic. The meeting decided to set up a $15 billion fund for member nations to revive the economy.
    The leaders discussed how to overcome the financial, trade, economic and social consequences of the pandemic. The meeting was held at the initiative of Russia with Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, as Russia is the chair of BRICS for 2020.
    S. Jaishankar,  the External Affairs Minister of India highlighted the initiatives and various decisive steps taken early by India in the wake of the pandemic including through Aarogya Setu Citizen App and Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Package.


Petersberg Climate Dialogue

    Union Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change Prakash Javadekar participated in the eleventh session of Petersberg Climate Dialogue on 28 April 2020. He said how the world is united engaged in finding a vaccine for novel Coronavirus, likewise it should have climate technology as open source which must be available at affordable cost. He stressed on the issue of climate finance and said the world now needs more. “We must plan for one trillion dollar in grants to developing world immediately”, he added
    This is the first virtual Climate Dialogue, hosted by Germany since 2010 to provide a forum for informal high-level political discussions, focusing both on international climate negotiations and the advancement of climate action.
    The Union Minister also participated in an Indo-German bilateral meeting through video conference just before the Petersberg Climate Dialogue.


Others
Commonwealth Youth Games postponed

    The seventh Commonwealth Youth Games were scheduled to take place from 1-7 August 2021, in Trinidad and Tobago, postponed to 2023. 
    The Commonwealth Youth Games are postponed because of clash of dates with the Tokyo Olympics. The Tokyo Olympics was originally scheduled to be held from 23 July-to 8 August 2020, but was postponed to 2021 owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. Common wealth Games Federation president Dame Louise Martin said the decision was taken in the best interest of athletes and fans.

 

Rishi Kapoor died 

    Veteran Bollywood Actor Rishi Kapoor died at the age of 67 on 30 April 2020 in Mumbai, after a two-year battle with leukemia. The actor, who had charmed his way into millions of hearts , the Prime Minister Narendra Modi tweeted that Kapoor "was a powerhouse of talent," adding that he would always recall their interactions, even on social media.
    He got the National Film Award for Best Child Artist, Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actor  in his long silver screen career.

 

Order of Rising Sun

    Thangjam Dhabali Singh, the doctor by profession and founder of the Manipur Tourism Forum (MTF), was conferred the 'Order of Rising Sun - Gold and Silver Rays' by the Japan government on 29 April 2020. The 'Order of the Rising Sun' is conferred on persons with achievements in international relations, promotion of Japanese culture, environmental preservation, welfare or achievements in their fields. It was constituted by Japanese Emperor Meiji in 1875.
    He organized the 70th anniversary of the Battle of Imphal of the Second World War. Several Japanese citizens, including officials from the Embassy of Japan in India participated in the event. 

 

Model Questions


1.  Who was appointed as the next Ambassador/ Permanent Representative of India to the United Nations at New York?
    1) Shantanu Narayen                 2) Gita Gopinath 
    3) T. S. Tirumurti           4) Laxmi     
    5) Ajay Banga

 

2.  Prime Minister of Russia is ..?
    1) Mikhail Mishustin      2) Askar  Mamin  
    3) Ali Asadov     4) Abdulla Aripov      5) Kokhir Rasulzoda

 

3. World Press Freedom Day observed on ….
        1) 1 May      2) 8 May      3) 3 May          4) 29 April               
    5) 14 April

 

4.  Asian Development Bank approved $ 346 million loan to provide reliable power connection in the rural areas of ……    
    1) Telangana               2) Maharashtra             3) Andhra Pradesh            4) Chhattisgarh             5) Himachal Pradesh

 

5.  RBI cancelled the license of which Mumbai based Co-operative bank on 2 May 2020?
    1) Apna Sahakari Bank               2) Citizen Credit Co-operative Bank  
    3) CKP Co-operative Bank         4) Cosmos Co-operative Bank   
    5) Janalaxmi Co-operative Bank 

 

6.  Who has been chosen for the Nikkei Asia Prizes 2020 in ‘Science and Technology’ category for his work in nanotechnology-based water purification?
       1) Adam Higginbotham           2) Prachi Salve  
       3) Prof. T. Pradeep                  4) Prof. K. Vijay 
       5) Dr.C.N.R.Rao  

 

Key: 1-3  2-1  3-3  4-2  5-3  6-3

NAMASTE OVER HANDSHAKE IS TO?

Union Cabinet Proposals

    Union Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi  approved to release an additional installment of Dearness Allowance (DA) to Central Government employees and Dearness Relief (DR) to pensioners with effect from 01.01.2020. There will be an increase of 4% over the existing rate of 17% of the Basic Pay/Pension, to compensate for price rise.
    Union Cabinet also approved reconstruction scheme for Yes Bank and also approved a proposal for the construction of 780 kilometer of green highways at a cost of Rs.7,660 crores.


World Kidney Day

    On every second Thursday in the month of March, the World Kidney Day is celebrated. This year, on 12 March 2020 the World Kidney Day observed.
    A global campaign aimed at raising awareness of the importance of kidneys done on this day.
    This year’s theme is ‘Kidney health for everyone everywhere from prevention to detection and equitable access to care’.
    It aims to raise awareness of the importance of our kidneys to our overall health and to reduce the frequency and impact of kidney disease and its associated health problems worldwide.


Cri-MAC launched

    Union Minister of State for Home Nityanand Rai launched the Crime Multi Agency Centre (Cri-MAC) for sharing of information on heinous crime and other issues related to inter-state coordination.
    He launched the Centre at a function organised on the occasion of 35th Inception Day of National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) on 12 March 2020.
    He also launched the National Cyber crime Training Centre (NCTC) for professional quality e-Learning services on cyber crime investigation to police officers, judges, prosecutors and other stakeholders.


International Yoga Day

    Leh, the capital of the Union territory of Ladakh will be the venue for the main event for International Yoga Day on 21 June 2020 and Prime Minister Narendra Modi will attend the day celebrations.


MS Swaminathan Award

    V Praveen Rao, Vice-Chancellor of Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University (PJTSAU) was conferred with the Dr MS Swaminathan Award.
    He was selected for this award for his contributions in the fields of agricultural research, teaching, extension and administration. It carries a prize of Rs.2 lakh and a citation.
    Praveen Rao handled 13 research and six consultancy projects on micro irrigation in India, Israel and South Africa


Dadasaheb Phalke Awards

Dadasaheb Phalke International Film Festival was held recently in Mumbai. Actor Ravi Dubey served as the host of show.
Best Film award declared to film “Super 30”.
Hrithik Roshan won the Best Actor Award for his performance in ‘Super 30’film.  In the film, he played the character of Anand Kumar and the film revolves around his social initiative.
Dia Mirza took home the award for best actress for her performance in Kaafir.
Best Actor in Television Series won by Dheeraj Dhoopar and Divyanka Tripathi Dahiya, who had played the lead role in the long-running TV show Yeh Hai Mohabbatein won the best television actress award. Big Boss 13 won Best Reality Show award.


Animal Protection Index 

     India is one of the better-performing countries in the global Animal Protection Index 2020, created by international animal welfare charity, World Animal Protection. The index ranks countries from A (being the highest score) to G (being the weakest score) according to their policy and legislation. India has attained a C ranking in the index, along with countries like New Zealand, Mexico, France, and Spain.
 

39th GST Council 

    On 14th March 2020, the 39th GST Council meeting was held under the chairmanship of Union Finance & Corporate Affairs Minister Smt Nirmala Sitharaman in New Delhi.
    The meeting was attended by finance ministers of different states and Union Territories and other senior officers. 
    The council took many decisions, including an increase in the tax rate on mobile phones and specified parts to 18% from 12%, allowing a full claim of input tax credit.
    GST (Goods and services Tax) on handmade, machine-made matchsticks has been rationalized to 12% while GST on MRO (Maintenance Repair Overhaul) services of aircraft has been slashed to 5% from 18%.
    She also said that a better GSTN system should be ensured by Infosys by July 2020.


Empowering Women Entrepreneurs  

Union Minister for Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises and Road Transport & Highways, Nitin Gadkari said that policy simplification of the government has resulted in an increased number of women entrepreneurs in the country. 
    He said that there are now around 80 lakh women entrepreneurs in Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) sector of the country and there has been an increase of about 38% under Prime Minister's Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP) enterprises being established by women entrepreneurs in last 5 years.
    ‘MSME SAMBANDH’ gives all the relevant information about procurements made by Central Public Sector Enterprises and a portal ‘Udyam Sakhi’ is meant for female entrepreneurs 

 

Nari Shakti Puraskar  

    On 8 March 2020, the President of India Ram Nath Kovind, presented Nari Shakti Puraskar on the occasion of International Women’s Day at a function held at Rashtrapati Bhavan Cultural Centre (RBCC)
    The Nari Shakti Puraskar is a National Award in recognition of exceptional work for women empowerment, conferred every year on March 8 as a mark of respect and recognition for those who have demonstrated exemplary courage and stellar contribution towards empowerment of women.
    One of the awardees is Padala Bhudevi from Andhra Pradesh, who  has been working for the development of tribal women, widows, Podu lands through a community based organization- CAVS (Chinnai Adhivasi Vikas Society), established in 1996.
    Tashi and Nungshi are mountaineers since more than 8 years. They are the first female twins to scale Mt. Everest in 2013. They belong to Uttrakhand.
    Bhageerathi Amma and Karthyayini Amma (105 and 98 years respectively) passed the Class IV literacy equivalent examinations from Kerala are also among the winners.
    The award also conferred on Indian Air Force (IAF)  first women fighter pilots, Mohana Jitarwal, Avani Chaturvedi and Bhawana Kanth.

 

First female President of Greece 

    Katerina Sakellaropoulou sworn in as the new President of Greece. She is the first female President of Greece, a former high court judge was voted overwhelmingly by parliament before two months. Greece must continue to adhere to its democratic principles and the state of law, moving toward “a future of prosperity that will have room for us all,” she said.
 

Ranji Trophy 

    On 13 March 2020, Saurashtra won their maiden Ranji Trophy  title against Bengal in the final played at the Saurashtra Cricket Association Stadium in Rajkot. It is their first-ever win in the history of India's premier domestic competition. Saurashtra posted 425 in their first innings. It successfully restricted Bengal on 381 in first Innings. In their second innings, Saurashtra put up 105 runs for the loss of four wickets in the 34 overs they batted on the final day before the players shook hands and agreed on a mutual draw. According to the rules of the tournament, if the final match is heading towards the draw, then whoever manages to take the first-innings lead is declared as the winner.

 

SERIES

In a series, words, letters or digits are given in a order and you are asked to fulfill the series. You have to identify the missing letter or digit in between letters and numbers to continue to sequence followed in the question.
     In this chapter there are three types of series completion questions. 1) Letter series, 2) Number series, 3) Letter and Number series.

 

Letter series:  In letter series some letters which follow a particular sequence of order. Out of this information find the missing letter or the next letter to continue the pattern.

 

Number series: In this series numbers or digits are used. In this series also the pattern/ sequences involved. We should be able to find out the pattern/ sequence involved. Number series require simple manipulation of numbers.

a) Skipping the numbers in some set of order.

b) Addition, subtraction, multiplication or division of numbers to get the next number in the series.
c) Increase or decrease in numbers in a specific pattern or order.

 

Letter, Number mixed series:  In this series both alphabets and numerical digits are used. These series are also formed in the same patterns like the above explained letter and number series.
 

Exercise
 

 AD,   EH,   IL,   ?,   QT.
    1) LM       2) MN       3) MP      4) OM      5) None of these
Ans: 3.
Hint:  The first and second letters of each term are moved four steps forward to obtain the corresponding letters of the next term.

 

 JE,   LH,   OL,   SQ,   ?
    1) WV              2) WX              3) VW           4) XW         5) None of these
Ans: 4.
Hint:  The first letter of the first, second, third ... terms are respectively moved two, three, four, 
... steps forward while the second letters of these terms are  respectively moved three, four, five, ... steps forward to obtain the corresponding letters of the successive terms.
 

  cx    fu    ir     ?    ol     ri.
    1) lo            2) mn           3) no         4) op            5) None of these
Ans: 1.
Hint: The first letter of each term is moved three steps forward and the second letter is moved three steps backward to obtain the corresponding letters of the next term.

 

  CAT,    FDW,     IGZ,    ?
     1) KJA                   2) KTC               3) LHD          4) LJC                 5) None of these
Ans: 4.
Hint: All the letters of each term are moved three steps forward to obtain the corresponding letters of the next term.

 

 BEH,     KNQ,     TWZ,     ?
    1) IJL             2) CFI              3) BDF                4) ADG               5) None of these
Ans: 2.
Hint: All the letters of each term are moved three steps forward to obtain the corresponding letters of the next term.

 

  BEH,      KNQ,     TWZ,     ?
     1) IJL                2) CFI                3) BDF                   4) ADG               5) None of these
Ans: 2.
Hint: All the letters of each term are moved nine steps forward to obtain the corresponding letters of the next term.

 

 FLP,    INS,    LPV,    ?
    1) ORY                2) UXZ              3) VXY                   4) SVW               5) None of these
Ans: 1.
Hint: The first and third letters of each term are moved three steps forward and the
second letter is moved two steps forward to obtain the corresponding letters of the next term.

 

  shg    rif    qje    pkd    ?
     1) ole                 2) olc                  3) nmc                    4) nlb                   5) None of these
Ans: 2.
Hint: The first and third letters of each term are moved one step backward and the second letter is moved one step forward to obtain the corresponding letters of the next term. 

 

  LXF,     MTJ,    NPN,     OLR,     ?
     1) PHV              2) PIU            3) PJW                4) PKX               5) None of these
Ans: 1.

 

  MHZ,     NIW,     OKT,     PNQ,      ?
     1) RRN             2) QRN            3) QRM               4) QQN             5) None of these
Ans: 2.

 

 Which of the following will come in place of the question mark (?) in the following letter series based on their position in English alphabet?
    UPI     ?     ODP     MBQ     IAW
      1) TIJ              2) SIK              3) SHJ                  4) THK               5) SHO
Ans: 3.

 

Which of the following groups of letters should come in the place of the question mark (?) in the series formed by letter groups of English alphabet given below?
      AZB      CYD     EXF      ?      IVJ
  1) GUH            2) GHU            3) GWH             4) GHW              5) None of these
Ans: 3. 

 

 What should come in the place of question mark (?) in the following series?
    ATTRIBUTION,     TTRIBUTIO,       RIBUTIO,      IBUTI,        ?
    1) BUT              2) UTI              3) UT                 4) IBU                 5) None of these
Ans: 2.

 

 What should come in the place of question mark(?) in the following letter
sequence ?
       AZB,    CYD,    EXF,     ?,     IVJ,    KUL
     1) FYH            2) GWG               3) HWH               4) GUF            5) None of these
Ans: 5.

 

 What should come in the blank space in the following series? M N O L R I V −
    1) E                 2) F              3) Z               4) H                5) A
Ans: 1.

 

  What should come in the place of question mark (?) in the following series?
      BZA        DYC         FXE        ?          JVI
      1) WHG            2) HUG              3) HWG             4) UHG                5) None of these
Ans: 3.

 

  c-baa-aca-cacab-acac-bca
      1) acbaa              2) bbcaa                  3) bccab            4) cbaac            5) None of these
Ans: 1.
Hint: The series is cab/ aa/ cacab/ cacab/ aa/ cacab/ ca. Thus, the pattern cacab, cacab,  cacab,  aa is repeated. 

 

  c-bbb--abbbb-abbb-
      1) aabcb          2) abccb          3) abacb         4) bacbb             5) None of these
Ans: 2.
Hint: The series is cabbbb / cabbbb / cabbbb. Thus, the pattern cabbbb is repeated.

 

  b-abbc-bbca-bcabb-ab
      1) acaa             2) acba            3) cabc               4) cacc                  5) None of these
Ans: 3.
Hint: The series is bcab/ bcab / bcab / bcab / bcab. Thus, the pattern bcab is repeated.

 

  ac-cab-baca-aba-acac
      1) aacb            2) acbc              3) babb              4) bcbb                5) None of these
Ans: 1.
Hint: The series is acac / abab / acac / abab / acac. Thus, the pattern acac, abab is repeated.

 

  -acca-ccca-acccc-aaa
       1) acca           2) caaa                3) ccaa              4) caac                  5) None of these
Ans: 2. 
Hint:  The series is ca / ccaa / cccaa / ccccaaaa.

 

Number series
 

  3, 6, 18, 72, (...)

       1) 144             2) 216            3) 288              4) 360             5) None of these
Ans:4.
Hint: The pattern is x2, x3, x4, ...                  ...  Missing number = 72 × 5 = 360.

 

   21,   25,   33,   49,   81,   (...)
        1) 145                2) 129                  3) 113                     4) 97                 5) None of these
Ans: 1.
Hint:  The pattern is + 4, + 8, + 16, + 32, ...    i.e + 22,  + 23,  + 24,  + 25 ...
           ...  Missing number= 81 + 26= 81 + 64 = 145

 

   12,   32,   72,   152,   (...)
        1) 312              2) 325                    3) 515                    4) 613                 5) None of these
Ans: 1.
Hint:  The pattern is + 20, +40, +80, ...                       
∴ Missing number = 152 + 160 = 312.
 

    2,   15,   41,   80,   (...)
        1) 111              2) 120              3) 121               4) 132                  5) None of these
Ans: 4.
Hint:  The pattern is  + 13,  + 26,  + 39, ...                      
∴ Missing number = 80 + 52 =132.
 

    8,  10,  14,  18,   (...) ,   34,  50,   66
        1) 24               2) 25                 3) 26                 4) 27                    5) None of these
Ans: 3.
Hint:  The pattern is +2,  +4,  +4, ... +16,  +16.              
∴ Missing number = 18 + 8 = 26.
 

    1,   2,   6,   24,   (...)
        1) 60            2) 95                  3) 120               4) 150                5) None of these
Ans: 3.
Hint:  The pattern is x2, x3, x4, ...                                  
∴ Missing number = 24 × 5 = 120.
 

  2,    3,   8,   63,   (...) 
       1) 1038             2) 1998         3) 3008             4) 3968              5) None of these
Ans: 4.
Hint: Each term in the series is one less than the square of the preceding term. Thus,
22 −1 = 3, 32 -1 = 8, 82 −1 = 63.                      
∴ Missing term = 632 −1 = 3969 −1 = 3968.
 

   95,   115.5,   138,   (...) ,   189
        1) 154.5              2) 162.5              3) 164.5         4) 166.5           5) None of these
Ans: 2.
Hint: The pattern is + 20.5,  +22.5,  ...                      
∴ Missing term = 138 +24.5 = 162.5.
 

*  4,   10,   (...) ,   82,   244,   730
       1) 24                2) 28                    3) 77                     4) 218             5) None of these
Ans: 2.

 

  24,    60,    120,    210,    (...)
       1) 300                  2) 336               3) 420                4) 525            5) None of these
Ans: 2.

 

Letter, Number mixed series:
 

 Which of the following will come in place of the question mark (?) in the following letter-number series?     M3V     05U      R7T      T9S       W11R        ?
      1)  Y13Q         2)  Z13Q          3)  Y15Q               4)  Y13P              5)  None of these
Ans: 1.

 

 Which of the following will come in place of the question mark (?) in the following letter-number series?      B6D,        C12I,        D20P,       ?
       1) E30Y         2) E30Q        3) E30S          4) Can't be determined           5) None of these
Ans: 1.
Hint:  The number series:  22+2,   32+3,   42+4,   52+5.     The letter series is following;
2 = B,   22 = D,   3 = C,   32 = I,   4 = D,   42= P,   5 = E,   52 = Y. 

 

*  What will come in place of question mark (?) in the following series?
       X5C,      U8F,       ?,      O17L,     L23O
       1) R10K                 2) P12I              3) R12I                 4) R10I               5) None of these
Ans: 3. 
Hint: The left letter moves three letters backward while the right one moves three letters forward. The number in the middle increases by 3,4, 5, 6, ...

 

 What should come in place of the question mark (?) in the following series?
       C0G,          E2I,         ?,          I12M
     1) G4K                 2) G6K                    3) G8K                   4) H5L              5) None of these
Ans: 2.

 

Which of the following will come in place of the question mark (?) in the following letter-number series?  
       C1A,       F4E,       H9I,      ?,      M25U
      1) J160           2) J16M              3) K16O                 4) K16Q            5) None of these
Ans: 3. 
Hint: The first character of each group is taken from consonants. Starting with 'c' every alternate letter is taken. The second characters of each group a squares of natural nos. The third characters are vowels.

 

ALPHABETICAL ORDER OF WORDS

In this type of questions the given words are to be arranged in the alphabetical order like in the dictionary. In this method first consider the first letter arrange them in the order and consider second letter and arrange them in the order then take next letter so on. Arrange the given words accordingly. 
 

Arrange the given words in alphabetical order and choose the one that comes first.
 

*  1) Intense      2) Intellect      3) Intend      4) Intelligent        5) Integument
Ans: 5.
Hint: Integument, Intellect, Intelligent, Intend, Intense

 

*  1) Didactic       2) Dictum       3) Dictionary         4) Diastole      5) Dictate
Ans: 4. 
Hint: Diastole, Dictate, Dictionary, Dictum, Didactic

 

*   1) Animate      2) Animosity       3) Anguish          4) Ankle         5) Announce
Ans: 3.
Hint:  Anguish,  Animate,  Animosity,  Ankle,  Announce

 

*     1) Qualify         2) Quarter           3) Quarrel             4) Quarry         5) Quaver
Ans: 1.
Hint:   Qualify,    Quarrel,    Quarry,    Quarter,    Quaver

 

*   1) Judiciary         2) Jockey         3) Javelin          4) Jealous        5) Jargon
Ans: 5.
Hint:  Jargon,   Javelin,   Jealous,   Jockey,   Judiciary

 

*  1) Blast      2) Bottle     3) Bondage       4) Boisterous      5) Bonafide
Ans: 1.
Hint: Blast,        Boisterous,         Bonafide,          Bondage,          Bottle 

 

*  1) Tenacious     2) Terminate       3) Temperature       4) Temple       5) Tenant
Ans: 3.
Hint:  Temperature,   Temple,    Tenacious,  Tenant,   Terminate

Arrange the given words in alphabetical order and tick the one that comes in the middle.
 

*   1) Plane             2) Plain                      3) Plenty                  4) Player                 5) Place
Ans: 1.
Hint:   Place,     Plain,     Plane,     Player,     Plenty

 

*   1) Parasite            2) Party               3) Petal             4) Paste                5) Prick
Ans: 4.
Hint:  Parasite,       Party,      Paste,     Petal,      Prick 

 

*   1)  Catastrophe     2)  Canvass      3)  Crisp      4)  Charcoal      5)  Character
Ans: 5.
Hint:  Canvass,    Catastrophe,    Character,      Charcoal,    Crisp

 

*  1) Delude        2) Delirium       3) Defer       4) Demean        5) Delete
Ans: 2.
Hint:  Defer,      Delete,       Delirium,       Delude,           Demean

 

*  1) Verrigate         2) Vibrate           3) Vindictive           4) Trench          5) Wavering
Ans: 2.
Hint:  Trench,   Verrigate,   Vibrate,   Vindictive,   Wavering

 

*   1) Firmament        2) Finish        3) First          4) Fissure        5) Fiscal
Ans: 3.
Hint: Finish,        Firmament,         First,       Fiscal,          Fissure

 

*  1) Amphibian    2) Amorphous    3) Amphidextrous    4) Ambiguous      5) Ambivalent
Ans: 2. 
Hint:  Ambiguous,      Ambivalent,       Amorphous,     Amphibian,     Amphidextrous

 

*   1) Entry            2) Efflorescent             3) Entreat            4) Ensure              5) Every
Ans: 3.
Hint:  Efflorescent,        Ensure,         Entreat,          Entry,         Every

 

Arrange the given words in alphabetical order and tick the one that comes at the second place.
 

*   1) Converse       2) Current                 3) Curator               4) Cutaneous              5) Cushion
Ans: 3.
Hint:  Converse,         Curator,         Current,            Cushion,           Cutaneous

 

*    1) Mink       2) Multiple       3) Murder        4) Multitude       5) Music
Ans: 2.
Hint:  Mink,     Multiple,      Multitude,       Murder,         Music

 

*   1) Rural          2) Romance           3) Rejoice                4) Reveal               5) Retain
Ans: 5.
Hint:   Rejoice,     Retain,          Reveal,           Romance,           Rural
In each of the following questions, arrange the given words in which they occur in the dictionary and then choose the correct sequence.
*    A) Peach            B) Praise                C) Precinct                D) Precept             E) Precede
1) 2,1,5,4,3          2) 2,1,3,4,5              3) 2,5,1,4,3              4) 1,2,5,4,3          5) None of these
Ans: 1.

 

*    A) Select            B) Seldom               C) Send                   D) Selfish                      E) Seller
1) 1,2,4,5,3           2) 2,1,5,4,3               3) 2,1,4,5,3                4) 2,5,4,1,3           5) None of these
Ans: 3. 

 

*    A) Wrinkle              B) Wriggle                 C) Writhe               D) Wretch              E) Wrath
1) 4,5,1,2,3          2) 5,4,2,1,3             3) 4,2,5,1,3             4) 5,2,1,3,4        5) None of these
Ans: 2.

 

*    A) Spruce           B) Spume             C) Spree              D) Spurt                 E) Sprawl
1) 5,3,1,2,4        2) 1,2,3,4,5             3) 3,5,1,4,2              4) 5,4,3,2,1         5) None of these
Ans: 1

 

*   A) Credential         B) Creed              C) Crease           D) Cremate            E) Credible
1) 1,2,3,4,5         2) 1,5,3,4,2        3) 5,1,2,3,4       4) 3,1,5,2,4         5) None of these
Ans: 4.

 

*   A) Intrinsic     B) Intrude     C) Intricate        D) Introvert     E) Intrigue      F) Introduce
1) 3,5,1,4,6,2         2) 3,5,1,6,4,2             3) 3,1,5,4,6,2         4) 5,1,3,2,4,6       5) None of these
Ans: 2.

 

*   A) Liver           B) Long            C) Late           D) Load           E) Luminous            F) Letter
1) 3,1,6,2,4,5         2) 3,1,6,2,5,4         3) 3,6,1,2,4,5          4) 3,6,1,4,2,5      5) None of these
Ans: 4. 

 

Answer the following questions based on the alphabet given below:
                         AB C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 

26. If the letters of the word PRODUCTIVE which are at the odd-numbered position in the English alphabet are picked up and arranged in alphabetical order from left and if they are now substituted by Z, Y, X and so on, beginning from left, which letter will get substituted by W?

1) No letter will get substituted by W.        2)  O         3)  E           4)  C          5) None of these
Ans:  2. 

 

*   What will come in the place of question mark (?) in the following series?
GPW,        GPUW,      GIPUW,       GIPSUW,       ?
1) GIHPSUW         2) GIPQSUW            3) GIKPSUW            4) GUPSUV    5) None of these
Ans: 3. 

 

*  If the alphabets are written in reverse order after interchanging alphabets from 'D to L' with those from ‘R to Z' respectively, which letter would be midway between W and E in the new order?
1) Z              2) N                 3) D               4) There is no such letter                   5) None of these
Ans: 2. 

 

*  If every third letter from the following English alphabet is dropped, which letter will be seventh to the right of eleventh letter from your right?
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W   X   Y   Z
1) V                  2) U                  3) K                  4) I                         5) None of these
Ans: 1.
Hint: After dropping every third letter, we get A B  D  E  G  H  J  K  M  N  P  Q  S  T  V  W  Y  Z ( 11 - 7 )  =  4th from the right

 

*   A B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z
          Four of the following five letter groups of the English alphabet given above are alike in a certain way and so form a group. On the basis of their position in English alphabet, which is the one that does not belong to the group?
1) DKG               2) FMI              3) MTP                4) JQM              5) HOL
Ans: 5.
Hint: In all others, the sequence is that of +7 and - 4 respectively.

 

Following questions are based on English alphabet.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 

*  If the letters from T to Z are interchanged by the letters A to G in such a way that A takes the position of T and so on, then which will be the third letter to the left of 18th from the right?
1) Y                   2) U                3) B                    4) C                     5) None of these
Ans: 1.
Hint: 3rd letter to the left of 18th letter from right. = ( 18 + 3 ) = 21st letter from
right = ( 26 - 21 + 1)  6th from left = F. In the changed sequence, Y comes in place of F.

 

*  If the first 6 letters shall be written in opposite order, then the next 6 letters shall be written in opposite order and so on, and at the end Y will be interchanged by Z then which will be the fourth letter to the right of 13th letter from left?
1) J                  2) H                     3) I                   4) O                          5) None of these
Ans: 5
Hint: 4th to the right of 13th from left = ( 13 + 4 ) =  17th from left =  Q.

 

*   What will come in place of question mark(?) in the following series?
       DGK      GKP     ?     PVC
1) GKV              2) KPV             3) PVZ                 4) KPU                  5) None of these.
Ans: 2
Hint: First letter moves + 3, + 4, + 5 places forward, Second letter + 4, + 5, + 6, and third letter + 5, + 6, + 7 in consecutive terms.

CLASSIFICATION

Classification is a process of grouping various objects on the basis of their common properties. Classification, therefore, helps to make a homogeneous group from a heterogeneous groups. Questions on classification may be of two types (A) Classification for Meaningful Words and(B) Classifications for Non-meaningful words.

(A)  Classification for Meaningful Words:
            Once you mastered the art of establishing the relationship between two words, it would be very easy to classify some given words or to find the odd word out from the given alternatives. The essential trick is to find out the basis of similarity between the words. The dissimilar (odd) word, would, then stand out, itself.

 

(B) Classification for Non-meaningful Words:
            Sometimes we are given a group of letters (non-meaningful words) and we are asked to find the odd letter-group out of them.

 

Some Models
 

* Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
    1) Teacher           2) Engineer             3) Architect             4) Doctor              5) Scientist
Ans: 1.
Hint: All the rest are exclusive professions while a teacher may, be there in any of these categories.

 

* Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
     1) Listen             2) Feel                     3) Think                     4) Sing                 5) Hear
Ans: 4.

 

* Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is
the one that does not belong to that group?
      1) Anxiety         2) Anger                   3) Sorrow                    4) Joy                5) Feeling
Ans: 5.
Hint: All others are specific feelings.

 

* Four of the following five words are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
      1) Three               2) Four                 3) Five                4) Six                  5) Nine
Ans: 4.
Hint: All others have two vowels.

 

* Four of he following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
     1) Anxiety             2) Worry             3) Inhibition             4) Curiosity             5) Weariness
Ans: 4.
Hint: All others are negative.

 

* Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and hence form a group. Find the one which is different from the other four.
     1) Rice             2) Wheat             3) Barley             4) Mustard             5) Bajra
Ans: 4.
Hint: Except 'mustard' each belongs to the same category, viz food grains. Mustard is an oil seed.

 

* Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and hence form a group. Find the one which is different from the other four.
     1) Arrow               2) Sword                3) Knife                4) Axe                5) Pistol
Ans: 1.
Hint: All others are held in the hand and not shot out.

 

* Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to the group?
   1) Pear                2) Jackfruit                3) Watermelon                4) Papaya               5) Mango
Ans: 3.
Hint: Except it all others have trees.

 

* Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
   1) Pencil                2) Sharpener                3) Blackboard                4) Chalk                5) Pen
Ans: 2.
Hint: Except it all others are used for writing purpose.

 

* Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
    1) Tortoise           2) Frog            3) Rat            4) Mongoosa            5) Snake
Ans: 5.
Hint: All others have feet.

 

* Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
   1) Swan             2) Crocodile              3) Frog              4) Snake              5) Chicken
Ans: 5.
Hint: Chicken is young one of hen.

 

* Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
    1) Coriander              2) Potato              3) Beetroot              4) Onion              5) Ginger
Ans: 1.
Hint: Except it others are obtained below the ground.

 

* Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
    1) Crow              2) Vulture              3) Bat              4) Ostrich              5) Eagle
Ans: 3.
Hint: Except it others are birds whereas Bat is a mammal.

 

* Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
   1) Volume               2) Size               3) Large               4) Shape               5) Weight
Ans: 3.
Hint: 'Large' is an adjective whereas others are noun.

 

* Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
      1) August               2) December               3) July              4) January               5) May
Ans: 5.
Hint: Except it others are either followed or preceded by a month of 31 days.

 

* Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
       1) Jackal               2) Cheetah               3) Tiger               4) Lion               5) Dog
Ans: 5.
Hint: Others are wild animals.

 

* Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
     1) Cheese                2) Butter                3) Milk                4) Curd                5) Ghee
Ans: 3.
Hint: Others are the products made from milk.

 

 * Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
     1) Sultry                2) Hot                3) Humid                4) Warm                5) Cool
Ans: 5.
Hint: Except it others are synonymous to each other.

 

Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
     1) Now            2) After             3) Then             4) Before             5) Again
Ans: 5.
Hint: Others are related with time.

 

* Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
1) Apple 2) Banana 3) Peach 4) Fig 5) Turnip
Ans: 5.
Hint: Turnip is a root vegetable while others are fruits.

 

(B) Classification for Non-meaningful Words
 

Some Models:
 

Directions: In each of the following questions, four groups of letters are given. Three of them are alike in a certain way while one is different. Choose the odd one.
 

* 1) RNJ            2) XTP             3) MIE             4) ZWR
Ans: 4.
Hint: In all other groups, the first and second letters are moved 4 steps backward to obtain second and third letter respectively.

 

* 1) PUT             2) END             3) OWL             4) ARM
Ans: 1.
Hint: All other groups begin with a vowel.

 

* 1) EBD             2) IFH             3) QNO             4) YVX
Ans: 3.
Hint: In all other groups, the last and first letters are consecutive.

 

* 1) ALMZ             2) BTUY             3) CPQX             4) DEFY
Ans: 4.
Hint: In all other groups, the first letter occupies the same position from the beginning of the alphabet as the last letter occupies from the end of the alphabet.

 

* 1) STUA             2) RQPA             3) MLKA             4) HGFA
Ans: 1.
Hint: In all other groups, the first three letters are in a reverse alphabetical order.

 

* 1) EDKL              2) LMST              3) NMUV              4) QPRS
Ans: 2.
Hint: In all other groups, the first two letters are in a reverse alphabetical order.

 

* 1) XGEZ              2) PCAQ              3) LKIN              4) DWUF
Ans: 2.
Hint: In all other groups, first and third letters are moved 2 steps forward to obtain fourth and second letters respectively.

 

* 1) PRVX              2) MQTV              3) DHKM              4) BFIK
Ans: 1.
Hint: In all other groups, the first, second and third letters are respectively moved four, three and two steps forward to obtain second, third and fourth letters respectively.

 

* 1) BDYW              2) CEXZ              3) DFYW              4) EGXV
Ans: 2.
Hint: In all other groups, the first and second letters are alternate; the third and fourth letters are alternate and written in a reverse alphabetical order.

 

* 1) XZCG              2) OQTX              3) IMNQ              4) EGJN
Ans: 3.
Hint: In all other groups, there is a gap of 1 letter between first and second letters, 2 letters between second and third and 3 letters between third and fourth.

 

* 1) UAZF              2) SCXH              3) RDWJ              4) KBPG
Ans: 3.
Hint: In all other groups, first and second letters are each moved 5 steps forward to obtain third and fourth letters respectively

 

* 1) DFCE              2) HIGJ              3) NPMO              4) XZWY
Ans: 2.
Hint: In all other groups, the third, first, fourth and second letters are the consecutive letters of the alphabet.

 

 * 1) ABCD              2) EGIK              3) ACDF              4) CFIL
Ans: 3.
Hint: The letters in (1) follow the sequence +1; those in (2) follow the sequence +2 and those in (4) follow the sequence +3, while the letters in (3) do not follow any such particular sequence.

 

* 1) RSXY              2) NOUV              3) MNST              4) DEJK
Ans: 2.
Hint: In all other groups, the first, second and third letters are respectively moved one,
five and one step forward to obtain second, third and fourth letters respectively.

 

* 1) xXYA              2) IIMP              3) hHIK              4) bBCE
Ans: 2.
Hint: All other groups contain only small letter.

COMPREHENSION

 

The reading comprehension item is a regular one in many competitive exams. In bank exams, it is usually for 10 marks. This item is meant to test at once your reading skills, vocabulary and its usage. Reading of news papers on a regular basis helps you in picking up speed in reading and building a huge vocabulary, the two important things that hugely help you to be successful both in exams and  in your career. 

Directions (Q.1-15): Read the following passage carefully and then answer the questions given below it. Certain words in the passage are given in bold to help you locate them while answering
vocabulary questions

 After the ‘Liberal’, a new catchphrase is being coined: ‘A New Health Order’. Talking about setting it up is the theme of the WHO sponsored international  conference on primary health  and medical care,  currently being held at Milan in Italy. While much has been said and written on establishing “new order”, little has actually been done. Will the conference at Milan too swear by the “new health order” go home and then forget about it, while the present medical and healthcare set-up in poor countries further entrenches itself? This does not have to be the fate of the radical resolutions that will undoubtedly be passed at Milan. Unlike creating a new world economic or information order, establishing a new health set-up is especially a matter for individual countries to accomplish. No conflict of international interests is involved. But this  advantage is, at least until it begins to take concrete shape, only theoretical. The million-dollar question is whether individual Third-world governments are able and willing to muster the will, the resources, the administrative and other infrastructure to carry out what it is entirely within their power to attain and implement.
                             The dimensions of the problem are   known and the solutions broadly agreed on. The present medical and  healthcare system is urban based,  closely geared to drugs, hospitals and expensively trained apathetic doctors. The bulk of the population in poor countries who live in rural areas, are left  untouched by all this and must rely on traditional healers. The answer is to turn out medical/ health personnel sufficiently, but not expensively, trained to handle routine complaints and get villagers to pay adequate attention to cleanliness, hygienic sanitation, garbage disposal and other elementary but crucial matters. More complicated cases can be referred to properly equipped centres in district towns, cities, and metropolises. Traditional healers, whom villagers trust, can be among these intermediate personnel. Some Third-world countries, including India, have launched or are preparing elaborate schemes of this nature. But the experience is not quite happy. There is resistance from the medical establishment which sees them a little more than licensed quackery but is not prepared either to offer condensed medical courses such as former licentiate course available in this country and unwisely scrapped. There is the question of how much importance to give to  indigenous system of medicine. And there is the difficult matter of striking the right balance between preventive health care and curative medical attention. These are complex issues and the  Milan conference would perhaps be  more fruitful if it were to discuss such  specific subjects.

1. The author is doubtful whether ...
1) an individual country can set up a new health order.
2) the Milan conference would pass radical resolutions.
3) under-developed countries have the capacity to organize their resources.
4) traditional healers could be trained as intermediate health personnel.
5) the problem has been understood at all.


2. The author has reservations about the utility of the Milan Conference because ..
1) it is expected only to discuss but not decide upon anything
2) earlier conferences had failed to reach any decisions.
3) the medical profession is opposed to a new health order.
4) while ‘new orders’ are talked and written about, not much is actually done.
5) None of these


3. The contents of the passage indicate that the author is opposed to..
1) traditional healers
2) licentiate practitioners
3) allopathic system of medicines
4) hospital

5) None of these


4. It can be inferred from the contents of the passage that the author’s approach is ...
1) sarcastic     2) constructive
3) indifferent   4) fault-finding
5) hostile


5. The author thinks that the solution to the problem of medical/ health care lies in...
1) opening hospitals is rural areas.
2) conducting inexpensive medical courses.
3) improving the economic condition of the masses.
4) expediting the setting up of a new health order.
5) making cheap drugs available.


6. To make the conference really useful, the author suggests ..
1) resolving the international conflicts involved.
2) that it should address itself to specific issues.
3) it should give importance to indigenous system of medicine.
4) that it should not pass radical resolutions.
5) None of these


7. What does the author suggest for the cure of the cases involving complications?
1) Treating such cases at wellequipped hospitals in district places
2) Training such victims in preliminary hygiene
3) Training semi-skilled doctors to treat such cases
4) Issuing licenses to semi-skilled doctors to treat such cases
5) None of these


8. The medical establishment seems to be reluctant to trust the...
1) allopathic medical practitioners.
2) traditional healers.
3) urban-based medical practitioners.
4) expensively trained allopathic doctors
5) None of these


9. For a new health order, the author recommends all of the following EXCEPT
1) motivating villagers to pay attention to cleanliness
2) setting up well equipped centres in district towns
3) discontinuing the present expensive medical courses
4) training traditional healers to function as medical health personnel
5) striking a balance between preventive health care and curative medical attention

Directions (Q.10 - 12): Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
10. LAUNCHED
1) parted       2) attacked         3) selected
4) planted     5) started


11. MUSTER
1) enlist             2) summery        3) manned
4) extension      5) entice


12. ENTRENCH
1) being entrapped
2) rounded completely
3) rooted firmly
4) endeared carefully
5) change radically

Directions (Q. 13 - 15): Choose the word which is most nearly opposite in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
13. CONDENSED
1) reduced            2) dwarfed           3) precise
4) lengthened       5) truncated


14. CRUCIAL
1) trivial                2) critical             3) important
4) crumble            5) vital


15. RESISTANCE
1) opposition                2) agreement         3) repulsion               

4) acceptance                5) compliance

ANSWERS
1-3     2-4     3-5    4-2    5-2    6-2     7-1    8-2     9-3   10-5   11-1 12-3     13-4    14-1     15-4.


Fill In The Blanks
Directions (Q. 1 - 8):
Pick out the most effective word from the options given below each question to fill in the blanks to make each sentence meaningfully complete.
1. Our PM has announced 6 points for ..... democracy and fighting ......
1) making, poor
2) selling, education
3) restoring, corruption
4) buying, beggars
5) packing, pirates


2. My father objected to my proposal because it was, he thought, founded on a ...... principle and it was also  very.....
1) good, workable          2) sound, small
3) wrong, expensive      4) small, smart
5) little, huge


3. There is no ..... the fact that a man  of great wits and wisdom .... huge power.
1) denying, commands
2) saying, small
3) crying, assumes
4) justifying, shows
5) declaring, amasses


4. In life, leisure must be spent carefully and ..... otherwise the devil will take the .... of you.
1) quickly, all
2) constructively, better
3) slowly, some
4) miserly, meaningfully
5) richly, none


5. Among the hobbies that a person can ..... the hobby of reading is the most useful and......
1) ignore, costly
2) give up, expensive
3) inculcate, rewarding
4) pick up, boring

5) take up, taxing


6. Krishnaraja Sagar Dam was ..... not only for the purpose of irrigation, but also for providing ....... to the  Kolar goldfields.
1) demolished, money
2) destroyed, place
3) conceived, electricity
4) ruined, room
5) pitched, funds


7. Visvesvaraya ....... in 1962 at the  ripe ..... of 101 years.
1) was born, age
2) passed away, age
3) died, time 

4) married, time
5) retired, reason


8. Narayana Murthy is the ....... of Infosys and has been described as the ...... of Indian IT sector.
1) co-founder, father
2) co-worker, son
3) creditor, creator
4) debtor, director
5) manager, maker

Answers
1-3    2-3     3-1     4-2     5-3     6-3     7-2      8-1.

 

 

(I) Directions (Q.1-15): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
          We should recognize the indebtedness of the country to its farm families who toil to safeguard national food security. Loan waiver is the price we have to pay for the neglect of rural India over the past several decades.  There has been a gradual decline in investment in key sectors related to agriculture such as infrastructure, marketing, post harvest technology etc. The four crore farmers whose debt is to be relieved will be eligible for institutional credit for their cultivation expenses during Kharif 2008. The challenge is to prevent them from getting into the debt trap again. For this purpose the Central and various State governments should set up an Indebted Farmers' Support Consortium, comprising scientists, panchayat raj officials and others relevant to assisting farmers to improve the profitability and productivity of their farms in an environmentally sustainable manner. The smaller the farm, the greater is the need for marketable surplus to reduce indebtedness.
        The Indebted Farmers' Support Consortium should aim to get all the four crore farmers all the benefits of the government schemes such as the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana, Irrigation Benefit Programme and others. If this is done, every farm family released from the debt trap should be able to produce at least an additional half tonne per hectare of food grains. This should help increase food production by about 20 million tonnes by 2008-10. At a time when global and national food stocks are dwindling and prices are rising, this will be a timely gain for our national food security. We need to ensure that the outcome of the debt waiver has enhanced farmers' income and production. The prevailing hiatus between potential and actual yields in the crops of rain-fed areas such as pulses and oil seeds is over 200 per cent even with the necessary technologies on the shelf. We are now importing without duty large quantities of pulses and oil seeds. If helped, farmers can produce these at a lower cost.
         Opportunities for assured and remunerative marketing are essential if loan waiver is not to become a recurring event leading to the destruction of the credit system. This is why the Minimum Support Price is necessary for all, not just for a few crops which is the case at present. This is the single most effective step to make loan waivers history. There is another urgent step which needs to be taken. The loan waiver does not cover those who borrow from money lenders.
It will not be possible for the government to scrutinize the veracity of such private deals but steps can be taken such as giving them Smart Cards which will entitle them to essential inputs like seeds and fertilizers. The gram sabha can be entrusted with the task of identifying these farmers so that there is transparency in the process and elimination of the chances for falsification and corruption. Fear of occasional misuse should not come in the way of enabling millions of poor farmers who have borrowed from informal sources if we are to achieve the goal of four per cent growth in agriculture.
Questions:
1. What is the likely impact of ensuring farmers' benefit from government schemes?
       1. They can use the credit from these schemes to repay money lenders.
       2. The government can control the price rise.
       3. Increased agricultural production.
A) Both 1 and 2            B) 1, 2 and 3      C) Only 3    D) Both 2 and 3   E) None of these
Ans:  B.

 

2. Why does the author feel that rural India has been overlooked in the past?
     1. Institutional credit was only made available for Kharif crops.
     2. Drop in investment in central areas related to agriculture.
     3. Records of those eligible for loan waivers have not been maintained over time.
          A) Only 2            B) Both 1 and 2        C) Only 3    D) All 1, 2 and 3     E) None of these

 

3. How can small farmers avoid debt?
     A) They need to acquire additional land holdings
     B) They need to take advantage of both government schemes as well as credit from money lenders
     C) They have to ensure that a sufficient amount of their farm produce is sold
     D) The Government should provide periodic loan waivers
     E) None of these
Ans:    2. A;        3. E.

 

4. What is the objective of the Indebted Farmers' Support Consortium?
     A) It is a support group for the families of indebted farmers
     B) It has to devise new government schemes for farmers
     C) It has to track farmers eligible for government schemes
     D) It has to evaluate government schemes and weed out the inefficient ones
     E) None of these

 

5. What does the author mean by the phrase 'indebtedness of the country to its farm families'?
     A) If farmers are in debt it impacts the entire country
     B) Citizens should be grateful to farmers and their families for the hardships borne by
them to cultivate crops
     C) India's food production has fallen causing it to be in debt since it has to import food
     D) The number of farmers' descendants taking up agriculture has fallen.
     E) None of these

Ans:    4. A;         5. B.
 

6. What is the author's opinion of recurring loan waivers?
         A) They are beneficial to farmers
         B) They are detrimental to the system of lending.
         C) They will reduce the need for a Minimum Support Price for agricultural products
         D) Farmers will no longer be in debt to money lenders
         E) None of these

 

7. Which of the following is TRUE in the context of the passage?
         A) The Minimum Support Price for agricultural products is yet to be implemented
         B) Loan waiver is a permanent solution to indebtedness of farmers
         C) Current agricultural growth is below four per cent
         D) India's food production has increased in 2008
         E) Money lenders benefit from loan waivers

Ans:    6. B;    7. C.
 

8. Why does the loan waiver not cover credit taken from money lenders?
        1. It is difficult to verify these contracts between farmers and money lenders.
        2. It will increase the deficit in the budget.
        3. There is a risk that the funds may be misappropriated.
        A) Both 1 and 3         B) All 1, 2 and 3        C) Only 2         
        D) Both 1 and 2        E) None of these

 

9. Why is there a vast gap in actual and potential yields of crops in rain-fed areas?
        A) The government prefers to import these crops at a lower rate
        B) No technological advances have been made to improve the growth of crops in these areas
        C) There is no Minimum Support Price available for these crops
        D) Farmers are forced to sell these crops at a low rate
        E) None of these

Ans:     8. A;       9. C.
 

10. How does the government intend to ensure transparency in the Smart card issuance process?
       A) Screening private players involved in the scheme
       B) Granting access to those farmers who register with their local money lenders
       C) Providing cards which cannot be forged
       D) Regularly rotating members of the gram sabha so there is no corruption
       E) None of these
Ans:   E

 

Directions (Q.11-13): Choose the word which is most similar in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
 

11. assured
          (A) insured          (B) definite    (C) doubted    (D) confident    (E) reliance

 

12. relieved
          (A) exempted          (B) backed         (C) supported              (D) calmed   (E) substituted

 

13. hiatus
          (A) hole               (B) break         (C) pause        (D) difference    (E) interruption
Ans: 11. B;    12. A;    13. D.

 

Directions (Q.14-15): Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
 

14. timely
      (A) young        (B) lately       (C) overdue     (D) aged   (E) slowly

 

15. elimination
      (A) authority       (B) forgiveness     (C) attack     (D) provision   (E) protection

 

Ans:  14. B;    15. E.
 

(II)
Directions (Q. 1–15): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
          According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), plastic bags are a better option than paper bags from the environment’s point of view. Many studies comparing plastic versus paper show that plastic bags have less net environmental effect than paper bags, requiring less energy for transport, production and recycling and because of all these, plastic generates less greenhouse gases. They cause less air and water pollution and can get compressed to a small size in landfills. Plastic bags are sterile and thus are a better option for the transportation of eatables and medicines. 
         However there is another side of using plastic. Plastics are manufactured from petroleum. This brings a host of other issues e.g. destruction of habitat. Their manufacturing involves chemicals, many of which have not been sufficiently tested for their toxicological impact on humans and animals. Exacerbating the problem is that science has only advanced to detect plastic components in human bodies and then link it to human ailments and diseases.
Where science has been unable to help is that it has largely failed to invent a solution to the hazards caused by it. Making the situation dismal is the fact that the hazard is closer than it appears. Teflon, PVC, Polyethylene, polystyrene in utensils and various silicones in hair and body care products accumulate in the body and lead to serious diseases. Plastic producing companies are often chemical companies or subsidiaries of chemical companies, both with poor track records when it comes to their adherence to regulatory compliance and their willingness to perform toxicological analysis on the products that they make. 
      Plastics often drain component chemicals, including hazardous chemicals when temperature changes beyond a certain point. It is for this reason that toxicologists do not recommend storing very cold food in plastics or heating food (microwaving especially) in plastics. Also, plastics are durable materials. Thus, they are hard to eliminate once used and create tremendous waste. While some common plastics can be recycled the vast majority cannot be recycled. Scientists suggest the use of Biodegradable plastics as an alternative to this persisting problem. These are the plastics that can decompose in the natural environment. Biodegradation of plastics can be achieved by enabling microorganisms in the environment to metabolize the molecular structure of plastic films to produce an inert humus-like material that is less harmful to the environment.
They may be composed of either bio-plastics, which are plastics whose components are derived from renewable raw materials, or petroleum-based plastics. The use of bio-active compounds compounded with swelling agents ensures that, when combined with heat and moisture, they expand the plastic’s molecular structure and allow the bio-active compounds to metabolize and neutralize the plastic. Various countries have been adopting different methods to discourage the use of plastic. Growing awareness in the UK of the problems caused by indiscriminate use of plastic bags is encouraging retailers to reward customers who bring their own bags or who reuse or recycle existing bags. This is called the ‘Green Bag Scheme’. In other countries retailers have stopped providing free plastic bags with purchases and have been selling cloth bags for very minimalistic prices.

 

1. What alternative do the scientists suggest for the problem associated with the use of plastics?
   (A) Use of biodegradable plastics
   (B) Treatment of hazards caused by the use of plastics
   (C) Strict compliance of the chemical companies to toxicological tests of their products
   (D) Banning the use of plastic throughout the world   (E) None of these
Ans: A.

 

2. Why don’t toxicologists recommend the heating of food and storing of cold food in plastic?
        (A) Food stuff spoils faster in plastic containers
        (B) The Teflon coating in such utensils is harmful
        (C) Plastic containers do not undergo recommended toxicology tests
        (D) Plastic releases harmful chemicals at very high and low temperature
        (E) None of these

 

3. According to the author, what is the problem with manufacturing plastic products?
        (A) These products are not energy efficient
        (B) These products produce greenhouse gases which are harmful to environment
        (C) The chemicals involved in their production are not tested for impact on living beings
        (D) It swells as soon as it comes in contact with heat and moisture
        (E) None of these

Ans: 2. D;     3. C.
 

4. What are the author’s views about the companies producing plastic products?
      (1) These companies are mainly responsible for the hazards caused to the environment
due to plastics.
      (2) Such companies are chemical companies themselves or a subsidiary of such companies.
      (3) Such companies do not perform toxicological tests on their products.
       (A) Only (1)       (B) Both (2) and (3)       (C) Both (1) and (3)      
       (D) Only (2)       (E) None of these

 

5. What does the author mean by ‘another side of using plastic’?
       (A) These are disadvantages of using plastic
       (B) Using biodegradable plastic instead of non-biodegradable plastic
       (C) Paper bags are better option than plastic bags
       (D) Many retail stores sell cloth bags at lower price
       (E) None of these

Ans: 4. B;   5. A.
 

6. Why does USEPA suggest that plastic bags are a better option than paper bags?
    (A) The plastic bags are inexpensive
    (B) Plastic bags can be tested for toxic chemicals
    (C) Paper bags do not generate greenhouse gases
    (D) Plastic bags require less energy as compared to paper for transportation, production and recycling
    (E) None of these

 

7. According to the passage, in which of the following fields has science failed?
    (A) To produce biodegradable plastic
    (B) To popularize the use of cloth and paper bags instead of plastic
    (C) To strictly implement the compliance of the chemical companies to toxicological tests of their products
    (D) To make plastic – free hair and body care products
    (E) None of these

Ans: 6. D;   7.
 

8. Which steps have been taken in UK to encourage the use of alternatives to plastic bags?
        (A) The UK government has banned the use of plastic throughout the country
        (B) The retailers in UK have been selling cloth bags at very low prices
        (C) The retailers reward the customers who bring their own bags or use the recycled bags
        (D) The government imposes heavy fine on those using plastic bags
        (E) None of these

 

9. Which of the following is not true in context of the passage?
        (A) Some countries have stopped providing free plastic bags to customers to discourage the use of plastic
        (B) The bio-active compound along with swelling agents ensure that plastic is neutralized in the presence of heat and moisture
        (C) Many plastic products do not undergo toxicological test
        (D) Being durable, plastic creates a lot of waste
        (E) All are true

Ans:  8. C   9. E.
 

10. Although harmful at extreme temperature, why does USEPA recommend transport of
eatables and medicines in plastic bags?
         (A) Plastic bag generate less greenhouse gases which would react chemically with medicines, thus producing adverse effect in body
          (B) Plastic bags are more sterile than other available options
          (C) Plastic products pass through a number of toxicological testings
          (D) Plastic bags are easily degraded and thus cause less harm to environment
          (E) None of these
Ans:  A.

 

Directions (Q. 11–13): Choose the word/group of words which is/ are most similar in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
 

11. persisting
         (A) troubling        (B) enduring       (C) resisting    (D) damaging   (E) harassing

 

12. exacerbating
         (A) executing        (B) influencing   (C) worsening (D) addressing   (E) declining
Ans: 11. B;   12. C.  

 

13. drain
         (A) sewer          (B) waste        (C) deplete    (D) give out (E) outlet

Ans:   13.  D.

 

Directions (Q. 14–15): Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning to the word
printed in bold as used in the passage.

 

14. dismal
      (A) Encouraging       (B) Prosperous    (C) Glad    (D) Generous   (E) Respectful

 

15. compressed
      (A) Extended           (B) Amplified        (C) Diffused    (D) Intensified    (E) Expanded

 

Ans:   14.  A.        15. E.

 

Directions (Q.16 -25): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Some words are printed in Bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Ancient Indian history is interesting because many races and tribes intermingled in early India. The pre-Aryans, the Indo-Aryans, the Greeks, the Scythians, the Hunas, the Turks and others made India their home. Each ethnic group contributed its mite to the evolution of the Indian social system, art, and architecture, language and literature. All these peoples and their cultural traits commingled so inextricably that currently they can be clearly identified in their original form. A remarkable feature of ancient Indian culture has been commingling of cultural elements from the north and south and from the east and west. The Aryan elements are equated with the Vedic and Puranic culture
of the north and pre-Aryan with the Dravidian and Tamil culture of the south. However, many Munda, Dravidian and other non-Sanskrit terms occur in the Vedic texts ascribed to 1500-500  BC. They indicate ideas, institutions,  roducts, and settlements associated with peninsular and non-Vedic India. Similarly, many Pali, and Sanskrit terms, signifying ideas, and institutions, developed in the Gangetic plains, appear in the earliest Tamil texts called the Sangam literature which is roughly used for the period 300 BC-AD 600. The eastern region inhabited by the pre-Aryan tribals made its own contribution. The people of this area spoke the Munda or Kolarian languages. Several terms that signify the use of cotton, navigation, digging, stick, etc., in the Indo-Aryan languages have been traced to the Munda languages by linguists. Although there are many Munda pockets in Chhotanagpur plateau, the remnants of  unda culture in the Indo-Aryan culture are fairly strong. Many Dravidian terms too are to be found in the Indo-Aryan languages. It is held that changes in the phonetics and vocabulary of the Vedic can be explained as much on the
Munda. India has since ancient times been a land of several religions. Ancient India saw the birth of Brahmanism or Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism, but all these cultures and religions intermingled and interacted. Thus Indians
speak different languages, practise different religions, and observe different social customs, they follow certain common styles of life. Our country shows a deep underlying unity despite great diversity. The ancients strove for unity.
The Indian subcontinent was geographically well defined and its geographical unity was supplemented by cultural integration. Though there existed many states, languages, cultures, and communities, gradually people developed territorial identity. The states or territorial units, called 'Janapadas' were named after different tribes. However the country as a whole came to be called 'Aryavarta', after the dominant cultural community called 'The Aryans'. The other
name by which India was better known was 'Bharatavarsha' or "The land of the Bharatas". Bharatas, in the sense of tribe or family, figures in the Rig Veda and Mahabharata, but the name Bharatavarsha occurs in the Mahabharata and post- Gupta Sanskrit texts.

16. According to the author, why ancient Indian history is interesting?
1) Because it is full of wars and pacts.
2) Because it is a long story, spanning over 5000 years.
3) Because it is about the unification of many races and tribes in the early India.
4) Because it is about the Aryans only.
5) None of the above

17. What was the contribution of different races to our history, according to the author?
1) They contributed to our art.
2) They contributed to our architecture.
3) They contributed to our languages.
4) They contributed to our literature.
5) They contributed to all the above fields.

18. According to the author, is it possible for us to identify now the cultural traits of each race in their original form?
1) No, we have no means now to identify them.
2) No, because there were too many races.
3) Yes, because they are not mingled together.
4) Yes, though they have been inextricably mingled.
5) None of the above

19. Why does the author talk about the Gangetic plains here?
1) Because he is fond of the area.
2) Because the plains are very fertile.
3) Because the river is a sacred one.
4) Because to state that ideas and institutions developed in the plains figure in the earliest Tamil Texts.
5) None of the above

20. According to the author, where do we find references to the term, "Bharatavarsha"? 

1) In the earliest Tamil texts.
2) In the early Vedic Literature.
3) In the Rig Veda.
4) In the Sangam Literature.
5) In the Mahabharata and post-Gupta Sanskrit texts.

21. Pick out the word most similar in meaning to the word "Intermingled".
1) Separated     2) Bifurcated  3) Segregated 4) Blended   5) Isolated

22. Pick out the word most similar in meaning to the word, "Ascribed "
1) Stolen    2) Written  3) Attributed   4) Erased  5) Found

23. Pick out the word most similar in meaning to the word, "mite".
1) Power   2) An insect 3) Perhaps 4) Site 5) Bit

24. Pick out the word opposite in meaning to the word, "Inhabited".
1) Housed  2) Hosted 3) Vacated  4) Dwelling  5) Rented

25. Pick out the word opposite in meaning to the word, "Strove". (PRELIMS 2017)
1) Laboured   2) Worked  3) Endeavoured   4) Idled away  5) Essayed

Error Spotting
Directions (Q.26-30): Under each question below, a sentence is divided into some parts and you have to identify the part which is GRAMMATICALLY wrong. If you think that the sentence is correct as it is, choose the Fifth option, "No error" as your answer.

26. Over half of China's population (1)/ lives in villages and the most pressing problem (2)/ faces the country today (3)/ is the lack of rural reforms (4)/. No error (5).

27. Though the idea of high speed trains in India is appealingly (1)/, studies show that countries which have such trains (2)/ have found that they are much more (3)/ expensive than expected and aren't used much (4)/. No error (5).

28. The Government plans to launch a new healthcare system which (1)/ consists of a website for people's registration for insurance (2)/ a data centre which stores records (3)/ and an interface which provides insurance companies with information (4)/. No error (5).

29. While the country spends $ 800 millions on fireworks every year (1)/ at the cost of only (2)/ $ 74 millions, it is set (3)/ to launch a rocket into space (4)/. No error (5).

30. Innovations especially into the field (1)/ of  information technology can help (2)/ to increase the wages of the workforce (3)/ provided workers have the necessary skills (4)/. No error (5).  (PO MAINS 2016)

Multiple - Error Type
Directions (Q. 31-33): Under each question, you find a sentence and the same is divided into FOUR PARTS and named A, B, C, and D. You have to identify the part or the parts that need some grammatical corrections and mark 
it/ them as your answer. If you think that the sentence is correct as it is, choose the option,"No Correction Required" (Option 5).

31. In a harsh tone, the minister shouted (A)/ at his servants and told them that (B)/ he doesn't need (C)/ their services any more. (D)
A) In a harsh ... shouted
B) at his servants .... that
C) he doesn't need
D) their services any more.
1) Only A 2) Only B
3) Only C 4) A, B, and C
5) No correction required

32. It was really unfortunate (A)/ that all our students (B)/ escaped the blazing fire (C) unhurt (D).
A) It was really unfortunate  B) all our students
C) escaped the blazing fire   D) unhurt
1) Only B 2) Only A
3) Only C 4) A and C
5) No correction required

33. Supposing if (A)/ Mohan and Raju tell the truth (B)/, they can escape (C)/ the punishment of fine and a jail term. (D)
A) Supposing if B) Mohan and Raju....truth
C) they can escape D) the punishment...term.
1) Only A 2) Only B
3) Only A and B 4) A and C
5) No correction required

KEY WITH EXPLANATIONS 

16-3, 17-5, 18-4, 19-4, 20-5, 21-4 22-3, 23-5, 24-3, 25-4,  26-3; Correct it as 'facing'.

27-1; Correct it as, 'appealing'. 28-1; Correct it as, 'is planning'. 29-5, 30-1; Replace ‘Into’ with ‘In’.

31-3; Correct it as 'he didn't need', as the first part of the sentence is in the Past Tense.

32-4; Correct it as 'fortunate and escaped from'. 33-1; Do not use both 'Supposing and If'.

VOCABULARY

Vocabulary: Meanings (synonyms)
 

1. Mrs Bates tried to domesticate Anna.
    Domesticate  to make (an animal) able to live with man and serve him  tam  bring under control  train
2. What God decrees we have to accept.
     Decree  command  decide  order  judgement
3. We were nonplussed that the mistress of the house had heard of the tragedy.
     Nonplussed  confused  surprised  puzzled  bewildered  dazed
4. They endeavoured to explain it as an act of charity.
    Endeavour  strive  try hard  make an effort  attempt  struggle
5. All this played real havoc on our imagination.
    Havoc  destruction  disturbance  disorder  disaster  devastation  chaos
6. I found that I could scarcely breathe.

    Scarcely  barely  almost not  hardly  (only) just
7. It was an eternal mystery to us.
    Eternal  forever  always  never ending  endless  everlasting  incessant  continual
8. God had taken the baby at such a tender age.
     Tender  delicate  young  child-like  gentle
9. We shuddered as we gnawed at the hunk of meat.
     Shudder  tremble  quiver  shake  shiver  tremor
10. The dog snarled at the intruder.
      Snarl  scowl  growl  threaten  intimidate  scare

 

Choose the alternative that best fits the blank:
1. The dancers were in Japanese __________. (outfit, dress, costume)
2. He is a wolf in the ___________ of a sheep. (attire, costume, garb)
3. She came to the party ________ her new diamond necklace. (showing, sporting, having)
4. We recognised him to be a policeman by his_________. (attire, uniform, garment)
5. The beggar's _________ were in tatters. (clothes, dress, costume)

 

Conditional clause ('If ' clause):
Conditional clauses are classified into three types based on the tenses.
They are:   1. Probable (possible) condition
                    2. Improbable condition
                    3. Unfulfilled condition


                                                                   Type - I
                                                Probable / possible condition

 

Usage: We use this type to talk about the future activities that are quite possible.
Structure: If (Subject + V1     Subject + can / will / may + V1)
           e.g: If you work hard,                     you can get the first rank.
                  Simple present tense               Simple future tense
1. Walk fast or you will miss the bus.
                  If you walk fast,                    you will not miss the bus.
                         sub + V1                                    sub + will + V1
                  Unless you walk fast, you will miss the bus.
                                   (unless = if not)

2. Take the medicine regularly or you may fall ill again.
          If you take the medicine regularly you may not fall ill again.
          Unless you take the medicine regularly, you may fall ill again.


                                                                  Type - II
                                           Improbable / Imaginary condition

 

Usage: We use this type to talk about the actions that we think are possible but not very
             probable. It indicates that we do not expect the action in the If-clause to take place.
Structure: If (Subject + V2  Subject + could / would / might + V1)
                   e.g: If I were a doctor,    I could give you treatment.
                                   V2                            V1
Note:     [  V1         V2          V3]
                  is         are        been
                are       were
                   e.g: 1) I am not a bird. So, I can' t fly in the sky.
                           If I were a bird,                    I could fly in the sky.
                               V- Simple past tense          conditional past

 Note: [ The above sentence is quite imaginary. It is not possible, i.e., unreal]
            2) I don't have money. So I can't give you any.                                          (March 2003)
              If I had money,                    I could give you some / any.
                          V2                                       conditional past
Note:       [  V1         V2         V3]
                  have   had     had
                  has
[The above sentence is not possible for that situation, but quite imaginary]
3) I don't have time. So, I can't accept the job.
      If I had time,     I could accept the job.


                                                                  Type - III
                                                        Unfulfilled condition

 

Usage: We use this type to talk about past actions that didn't happen. It expresses a condition in the past that hasn't been fulfiled (Unfulfilled).
Structure: If [ subject + had + V3  subject would have / could have / might have + V3]
                  

                   e.g: If you had asked me,               I would have helped you.
                       Past perfect tense                     Perfect conditional tense
1. He didn't study well. So, he failed.                                                                  
     If he had studied well, he would not have failed.
2. She didn't carry her driving license. So, she had to pay a fine.
      If she had carried her driving license, she would not have had to pay a fine.
3. You didn't take the medicines regularly. So, you fell ill again.
     If you had taken the medicines regularly, you would not have fallen ill again.
4. I was held up in a traffic jam. So, I missed the train.                                        
     If I had not been held up in a traffic jam, I would not have missed the train.
5. No precautions were taken. So, many were killed in the cyclone.
     If precautions had been taken, many would not have been killed in the cyclone.


Notice the following structures:
         Type I            Sub + V1                Sub + will
         Type II          Sub + V2                Sub + would
         Type III        Sub + had + V3     Sub + would have           

                          If you invite me,   I will attend the party.
                                      V1
                       If you invited me,   I would attend the party.
                                      V2
                       If you had invited me,   I would have attended the party.
                                      had + V3

ACTIVE VOICE AND PASSIVE VOICE

            ఇంగ్లీష్ వాక్య రచనలో క్రియారూపం గుణాత్మకంగా రెండురకాలుగా ఉంటుంది. అందులో ఒకటి కర్త్రర్థకం. అంటే కర్త ప్రధానంగా ఉన్న వాక్యం. ఆ పని కర్త పూర్తి చేస్తుందని అర్థం. దీన్ని ఆక్టివ్ వాయిస్ అంటారు. ఇక రెండోది కర్మార్థకం. అంటే క్రియా ఫలాన్ని పొందే కర్మ ప్రధానంగా ఉన్న వాక్యం. ఆ పనిని కర్మ అనుభవిస్తుందని అర్థం. దీన్ని పాసివ్ వాయిస్ అంటారు. మౌలికంగా ఒక వాక్యంలో సబ్జెక్ట్ సూచించే పదం పని చేస్తున్నదా లేకపోతే పని ఫలాన్ని పొందుతున్నదా... అని తెలిపే క్రియారూపానికి వాయిస్ అని పేరు. ఈ విధంగా ఇంగ్లిష్‌లో భావ ప్రసారాన్ని కర్త ప్రధానంగా చెప్పడాన్ని ఆక్టివ్ వాయిస్ అని, కర్మ ప్రధానంగా చేసి చెప్పడాన్ని పాసివ్ వాయిస్ అని అంటారు. అయితే టెన్స్ మారకుండా కేవలం క్రియారూపంలో మార్పు చేయడం ద్వారా ఒక వాక్యాన్ని పైన తెలిపిన రెండు రకాల వాయిస్‌లోనూ తెలపవచ్చు. మరి మన కమ్యూనికేషన్ అవసరానికి తగినట్లుగా మన ఇంగ్లిష్ వాక్యాలు ఈ రెండింటిలో ఏ వాయిస్ రూపంలోనైనా వ్యక్తీకరించే వీలుంది.

     Voice refers to the arrangement of the subject and the object in a sentence along with the change in the tense in the clause. Verbs in English are inflected to show five main traits: person, number, tense, voice, and mood. In English, there are two voices: the active and the passive. Modern English is an S+V+O order language i.e. Subject + Verb + (direct) Object.
                                           e.g.: The student took the book. (Active)
            On the other hand, in the passive voice the subject of the active voice (doer) and the active voice direct object (receiver) interchange their relative position in the clause. Thus, the order becomes: Object+ Helping Verb + Past Participle of the Main Verb + by + Subject
                                          e.g.: The book was taken by the student. (Passive)
            Please note the structural difference in the above sentences in the corresponding transformation from the Active Voice into the Passive Voice of the sentence offered under the example given above.
            However, not every active sentence in English can be transformed into corresponding passive form. There are two rules which are required to make this transformation. They are: 1.Only transitive verbs can be made passive, since it has to have a direct object to make it into passive. 2. Linking verbs cannot be transformed for a passive clause.      
The important thing is nothing but the changing the voice of the verb in the transformation of Change of Voice. Please do observe this note. When the verb of a sentence is changed from the Active Voice to the Passive Voice and the other words in the sentence are left unaltered, a change in meaning results. In the following examples, the verbs are underlined.
                                        e.g.: Active Voice: He is driving to the airport.
                                              Passive Voice: He is being driven to the airport. (Wrong)
Explanation: The person referred to by the subject of the first sentence is behaving actively; the person is doing the driving. The person referred to by the subject of the second sentence is behaving passively; someone else is doing the driving. Further the verb ‘drive’ in the given sentence is INTRANSITIVE and has NO PASSIVE FORM. Language encounter! Don’t you feel so? Then, this is not the transformation desired.
            We have to change only the form and not the meaning. If this precautionary step is programmed into our minds, transformation of voice becomes easy on our part. In order to preserve the meaning of a sentence when the Voice of the verb is changed, it is necessary to alter the order of the words in the sentence.
       It should be noted that, when changing the Voice of a verb in a sentence while preserving the meaning of the sentence, it is necessary to make sure that the verb (tense) agrees with its new subject.
                                       e.g.: Active: The boys are mowing the lawn.
                                             Passive: The lawn is being mowed by the boys. (Right)
                                                   Voice Transformation Made Easy
            At first, we have to locate the main verb in the given sentence. Then ask "Who?" (Who performed the action?) You will get the "Subject". Now read the "Subject and Verb" together and ask "What" or "Whom" to know what is or who is involved in the action and you will get the "Object".
            Now, take the "Subject" and place it at the end and bring the "Object" to the first place. Change the verb into "Past Participle". Add suitable "be" form verb to indicate the tense and degree.
            If there is no answer for the questions "what / whom" then the verb happens to be an ‘intransitive’ one. The ‘intransitives’ cannot be changed into the ‘Passive Voice’. You need an "Object" to change the ‘Voice’. 
e.g.: Namratha goes to school. - (No object – Intransitive Verb – No Passive)
      Namratha tells stories everyday.    ↔    Stories are told by Namratha everyday.

 

THE PROCESS OF THE VOICE CHANGE

             కర్త ప్రధానంగా ఉన్న వాక్యాలను Active Voice లో ఉన్నాయని, కర్మ లేదా పని (క్రియ) ప్రధానంగా ఉన్న వాక్యాలను Passive Voice లో ఉన్నట్లు చెప్తారని మనకి తెలుసు. అయితే Tenses విభాగంలో, వీలైన అన్ని Tense లకి, వాటి Passive నిర్మాణాలను మీరు చూశారు. మరి కొన్ని విభిన్న సహాయక క్రియలతో కూడిన వాక్యాల Passive రూపాలు ఎలా ఉంటాయో, ఈ విభాగంలో చూస్తారు. ఒక సూత్ర రూపంలో ఏర్పాటు చేసిన TABLE ని, ఇక్కడ పొందుపరిచాం. ముందుగా Active Voice లో ఉన్న ఒక వాక్యాన్ని passive Voice లోకి మార్చడానికి రూపొందించిన సోపానాలను ఒక ఉదాహరణ సహాయంతో నేర్చుకోండి.
           
 e.g.: Sheela   is learning   English   now.  (Active Voice లో ఉన్న వాక్యమిది.)
                              Subject        Verb      Object      Adv  
పై వాక్యం subject తో ప్రారంభమైంది కాబట్టి ఇది Active Voice లో ఉందని మనకు తెలుసు. దీన్ని Passive Voice లోకి మార్చడానికి ఈ కింది సోపానాలను follow అవుదాం. పైన ఇచ్చిన వాక్యాన్ని Passive లో ఇలా రాద్దాం.
1.
object ని ముందుగా రాయాలి. (English . . .
2. is సహాయంతో Passive కు తగిన helping verb రాయాలి.  is being...
3. main verb యొక్క Past Participle  రాయాలి.  learnt
4. సాధారణంగా by ని చేర్చాలి. (కర్త స్పష్టంగా తెలిసినప్పుడే by)
5. ఇప్పుడు కర్తను రాయాలి. కర్త స్పష్టంగా తెలిసినప్పుడే
Sheela
6. చివరగా Adverb ను రాయాలి. (Active Voice లో ఇచ్చిన now )
e.g.:    English       is being           learnt                  by               Sheela       now.
         Object      helping verb    Past Participle   Preposition      Subject        Adverb

CONVERSION TABLE


VOICE TRANSFORMATION IN DIFFERENT VERB TENSES
Passive Voice Strucutres for Modals


* Modal Verbs can have their Passive forms with the verb ‘be’ following them in their passive constructions. Modals like can, should, ought to, have to, must, had better, might, could, would, had to, has to, need to, may, will have to become can be, should be, ought to be, have to be, must be, had better be, might be, could be, would be, had to be, has to be, need to be, may be, will have to be respectively.
                                     e.g.: Active : Neha can perform the trick easily.
                                            Passive: The trick can be performed by Neha easily.
                                    Miscellaneous Cases in Voice Transformation
* Imperative sentences (those that do not have the subject in them) can also be transformed into their Passive Voice with a special formula. ( Let + Obj + be + not + V3+ by + Sub.)
                                               e.g.: Active : Please close the door.
                                                      Passive: Let the door be closed by you.
* When there are two objects i.e. the direct object and the indirect object in a sentence, the
passive construction takes place in either of the forms given below.    
                                             e.g.: Active : I have taught the class the first lesson.
                                                     Passive : The first lesson was taught by me to the class.
                                                     Passive : The class was taught the first lesson by me.
* By making the clause itself as the subject in the passive voice.
                                            e.g.: Active : I hope that he will realize his mistake.
                                                   Passive : That his mistake will be realized is hoped by us.
* Phrasal verb cases should be taken care of.
                                           e.g.: Active : We are looking at the game.
                                                   Passive: The game is being looked at by us.
* By substituting the clause with pronoun it.
                                            e.g.: Active : I expected that they would win the match.
                                                    Passive: It was expected by me that the match would be won by them.
* Interrogative sentences
                                            e.g.: Active : How else would you learn it?
                                                    Passive : How else would it be learnt by you?    
                                                    Active : Who broke it?
                                                   Passive : By whom was it broken?
* Sentences starting with ‘Let…’
                                                  e.g.: Active : Let me see the picture.
                                                         Passive : Let the picture be seen by me.
           As a general rule, however, the active voice is shorter, more direct, and more dynamic than the passive voice. When you are writing, try to find all of your passive voice sentences and change them into the active voice. Keep those sentences for which passive voice is an improvement and return to your first construction for the others.
       
   ఈ అధ్యయనాంశంలో చెప్పిన విషయాలను నిశితంగా గమనిస్తే వాయిస్ ఛేంజ్ ప్రక్రియ సులభమవుతుంది. అయితే అన్ని టెన్స్‌లకు సంబంధించిన, ప్రత్యేక సందర్భాలు ఇమిడి ఉన్న వాక్యాలను వాయిస్ ఛేంజ్ విషయంలో ప్రాక్టీస్ చేస్తే ఆ ప్రక్రియపై పట్టు వస్తుంది. అందుకోసమే ఒక అభ్యాసాన్ని ఇచ్చాం.. ప్రయత్నించి తర్వాత మీ జవాబులను ఇచ్చిన సమాధానాలతో సరిచూసుకోండి.

SUBJECT AND VERB AGREEMENT

 This has been a very frequently testing block of grammar. It is the fundamental ground for making an accurate sentence in English.


What is Subject and verb agreement?
          In order to understand the subject and verb agreement, you must know the structure of a sentence in English.


Structure of a sentence: subject + finite verb
         Every sentence has two essential parts namely a subject and a finite verb. Therefore lets understand these two terms clearly.
Subject: It is the part about which the sentence says something. It is either a noun or a noun equivalent.
Finite Verb: It is the part which says something about the subject. It is the verb that shows the tense of the sentence and agrees with the subject in number and person.


Examples:  

1.  am a writer (I = subject; am = finite verb)
2. You are a reader (You = subject; are = finite verb)

3. She sells vegetables (She = subject; sells = finite verb)
4. They buy vegetables (They = subject; buy = finite verb)
5. The flower has bloomed (Flower = subject; has bloomed = finite verb)
6. The flowers have bloomed (flowers = subject; have bloomed = finite verb)
          If you observe the above examples closely, you can understand that any other form (i.e. other than the used one) of the verb is wrong to replace. That is what we call subject and verb agreement. It means using the appropriate verb form to the subject. It has been one of the most frequently asked questions. Therefore, let’s dig deep into subject and verb agreement questions and error possible areas of it.
Note: Throughout the rules below the verb means Finite Verb.


Rule 1: A singular subject demands a singular verb; Plural subject takes a plural verb.
Note: The trick is in knowing whether the subject is singular or plural. The next trick is recognizing a singular or plural verb.
Hint: Verbs do not form their plurals by adding an 's' as nouns do. In order to determine which verb is singular and which one is plural, think of which verb you would use with ‘he or she’ and which verb you would use with ‘they’.

Example: talks, talk
          Which one is the singular form? Which word would you use with he? We say, "He talks." Therefore, talks is singular. We say, "They talk." Therefore, talk is plural.
e.g:   1. The bridge                         opens every hour
              Subject                                Finite Verb
         2. The bridges                        open every hour
                 Sub                                        Verb
         3The athletes                       are active
                 Sub                                        V
         4. The athlete                        is nervous
                  S                                           V
         5. The hawk                             soars
                  S                                          V
         6. The hawks                          swoop down
                  S                                           V
*  Observe the matching of singular and plural verbs with their subjects.

Rule 2: Two singular subjects connected by or (or) nor require a singular verb.
e.g. : According to the letter I have received, my aunt or uncle is arriving by train today.


Rule 3: Two singular subjects connected by either/ or or neither/ nor require a singular verb.
e.g. : Neither Yamuna nor her brother is available at the house .
Either Kiran or Karan is helping today with stage decorations.


Rule 4: When ‘I’ is one of the two subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor, put it second and follow it with the singular verb am.
Example: Neither she nor I am going to take up the next project.


Rule 5: When a singular subject is connected by ‘or’ or ‘nor’ to a plural subject, put the plural subject last and use a plural verb.
Example: The serving bowl or the plates go on that shelf.


Rule 6: When a singular and plural subject are connected by either/or or neither/nor, put the plural subject last and use a plural verb.
Example: Neither Janaki nor the others are at the theatre right now.

Rule 7: As a general rule, use a plural verb with two or more subjects when they are connected by ‘and’.
Example: A car and a bike are primarily used as means of transportation


Rule 8: When subjects are combined by linkers such as together with, along with, besides, with, in addition to, as well as, etc… the verb agrees with the earlier subject.
(It means if the earlier subject is singular the verb should be singular and if the subject is plural the verb should be plural)
e.g: 1) The general (sub 1) along with the soldiers (sub 2) was (V) away from the operation.
      Here the earlier subject is ‘the general’ which is singular and so the verb ‘was’ (singular) is used.
2) The supervisors (Sub 1) as well as the captain (Sub 2) have taken (V) an important decision.
      ‘The supervisors’ is plural so ‘have taken’ is the right form of the verb.
Excitement (sub 1), in addition to nervousness (2), is the cause of her shaking.
The politician (sub1), together with the newsmen (2), is expected shortly.

 

Rule 9: The pronouns such as—
Everyone               every body                everything
Someone               some body                something
No one                   no body                     nothing
None                      each                           every
One                        neither                       either……


Need Special care. These feel plural but they are always singular and so they take singular verb. Do not be misled by what follows of.
Examples:
 Everybody (S) is (V) entitled to one month’s salary as bonus
Nobody (S) Knows (V) what the future has in store for him/ her
None (S) wants (V) a change in the working hours.
One(S) doesn’t like(V) to have one’s words doubted.
Neither of the resolutions (S) moved by him was (V) passed.
Singular indefinite pronouns take singular verbs or singular personal pronouns.

Correct: Each of the members has one vote.
(The subject, each, is singular. Use has.)
Incorrect: One of the girls gave up their seat.
Correct: One of the girls gave up her seat.
(Her refers to one, which is singular.)
Plural indefinite pronouns take plural verbs or plural personal pronouns.
Correct: A few of the justices were voicing their opposition.
(Few is plural, so are were and their.)
For indefinite pronouns that can be singular or plural, it depends on what the indefinite pronoun refers to.
Correct: All of the people clapped their hands.
(All refers to people, which is plural.)
Correct: All of the newspaper was soaked.
(Here all refers to newspaper, which is singular.)
Examples: Each of the girls sings well.
                    Every one of the cakes is gone.

A Gender-Sensitive Case
             The pronouns ending with -body or - one such as anybody, somebody, no one, or anyone are singular. So are pronouns like each and every. Words like all or some may be singular. That means that a possessive pronoun referring to these singular words must also be singular. In standard written English the possessive pronoun his is used to refer to a singular indefinite pronoun unless the group referred to is known to be all female.
Incorrect: Is everyone happy with their gift?
Correct: Is everyone happy with his gift?
(Everyone and is are singular. The possessive pronoun must be singular, too)
            Most languages, including English, observe the standard of using the masculine pronoun in situations like this. However, in some circles today the idea of choosing the masculine pronoun sounds discriminatory against women. If this usage bothers you, or if you think it may bother your audience, there are two possible ways to work around this and still use standard English.
1. Use the phrase his or her. It is a little awkward, but OK.
Correct: Is everyone happy with his or her gift?

2. Rewrite the sentence using a plural pronoun or antecedent. Plural personal pronouns in English no longer distinguish between masculine and feminine.
Correct: Are all the people happy with their gifts?


Rule 10: When two nouns refer to a single entity the verb is singular.
e.g: The lyricist and singer (S)  has entertained (V) the audience well.
Here the lyricist and singer is one and the same person. Therefore, it takes a singular verb. In general, the subject is considered plural if there are two different articles before those nouns.
e.g: The lyricist and the singer have entertained the audience well.
Note: Article ‘The’ is repeated before two nouns – Lyricist and Singer.
Observe the following carefully.
The President (S1) and Secretary (S2) of the organization was (V) misinformed.
The President (S1) and the Secretary (S2) of the organization were (V) misinformed.


Rule 11: When two subjects are combined by either…..or…,/neither…..nor……the verb agrees with the nearer (closer) subject. (It means if the subject closer to the verb is singular the verb must be singular and the verb is plural if that subject is plural)

e.g: 1) Either you or he(S) has (V) to finish the work
2) Either he or you(S) have (V) to finish the work.
3) Neither the chairperson nor the members(S) have turned (V) up for the meeting.
4) Neither the members nor the chairperson(S) has turned (V) up for the meeting.


Beware of the following areas:


A) The distraction between the subject and the verb.
e.g.:
 1) The study (S) of language origin and its changes is (V) known as the science of linguistics. Here the original subject is ‘Study’ and its verb is ‘is’ the matter between the subject and verb distracts the test taker’s mind. The ending of the distracter or preceding part of the verb is plural and so it may cause confusion. So take care of the  distracters.
2) The scales (S) on the body of the fish help (V) to protect
3) The effects (S) of cigarette smoking are known (V) to be quite harmful.


B) The number of – A number of :
‘The number of’ is a way to describe an ‘amount’ or ‘quantity’ so it is singular.
A number of means ‘many’ so it is plural.
e.g.: 1) The number (S) of delegates attending the conference is (V) hundred.

2) A number(S) of delegates have arrived(V) for attending the conference.


C) Decimals and fractions.
When there are fractions or decimals the verb agrees with the noun not with the decimals or fractions.
e.g.: 1) Two fifths of the grain(S) is (V) out of use.
2) One thirds of the Students(S) were (V) convinced that there would be no final exams.
3) The majority of the students have got first classes.
4) The majority of the population in India is the Hindus.


D) The collective nouns: Though a collective noun is the collection of many items, it is considered singular so it takes a singular verb.
e.g. 1) A hand (S) of bananas has been sent (V) to the retailer in compensation for the damaged one.
2) The Newly bought flock(S) of sheep was (V) kept in the enclosure.


E) Noun endings: Many of us get confused by looking at the endings of nouns. Some nouns end in‘s’ and other don’t. The general belief is that if a noun ends with‘s’ it is a plural noun and it is singular if there is no ‘s’ at the end.

Contrary to this belief some singulars end with ‘s’ and some plurals do not have ‘s’ at the end. Therefore, you are advised to be careful about such kind of irregular forms of nouns.
e.g.: 1. Physics(S) is (V) considered a difficult subject for many students.
2. Cattle(S) are (V) grazing in the neighbour’s field.


F) With words that indicate portions:
With words that indicate portions-percent, fraction, part, majority, some, all, none, remainder, and so forth, the noun with of phrase decides the verb. In other words look at the noun with of phrase to determine whether to use a singular or plural verb.
I. If the object of the preposition is singular, use a singular verb.
II. If the object of the preposition is plural, use a plural verb.
Examples: 1. Fifty percent of the cloth has disappeared. (‘Cloth’ is the object of the preposition of)
2. One-third of the city is unemployed.
3. One-third of the people are unemployed.
4. None of the garbage was picked up.
5. None of the sentences were punctuated correctly.
6. Of all her books, none have sold as well as the first one.

SIMPLE, COMPLEX AND COMPOUND SENTENCES

I. Simple Sentence
A sentence which has only one finite verb is a simple sentence. It may have non-finite verbs, if required.
e.g.: She is walking.
        He has written a letter to help his son.

 

II. Complex sentence
A complex sentence consists of a principal/ main clause with one or more sub-ordinate clauses. It means that a complex sentence has more than one finite verb. Sub-ordinate clauses are joined by sub-ordinating conjunctions.
e.g.: I know that he is a good man.
        When you do this work, I shall help you with money.

 

III. Compound sentence
A compound sentence consists of two or more principal clauses. These clauses are joined by co-ordinating conjunctions such as and, but, so, therefore, otherwise, or, else, nor, while, for, whereas, still, yet, nevertheless, however, as well as, all the same, indeed, but.
e.g.: Speak or you will die.
        She is rich but she is not vain.
        My brother came and he handed over money to me.
        It was dark, however, we went out.
        It is cold indeed, but I will go out.
        She is intelligent while her sister is dull.
 

 

PRACTICE EXERCISE

I. Combine the following sentences into simple sentences.
 

1. The student admitted. He was absent.
A: The student admitted his absence.

 

2. I am not aware. what is he?
A: I am not aware of his profession.

 

3. She is sure. She will secure high marks.
A: She is sure of securing high marks.

 

4. I expect. He is honest.
A: I expect him to be honest.

 

5. It is certain. She has two sons.
A: She has certainly two sons.

 

6. It is believed. Netaji died in air crash.
A: Netaji is believed to have died in air crash.

 

7. It is beyond doubt. She will recover from illness.
A: Undoubtedly, she will recover from illness.

 

8. He visited the Taj. It is an artistic building.
A: He visited the Taj, an artistic building

 

9. Rathore is our captain, He scored five runs.
A: Rathore our captain, Scored five runs.

 

10. I will board a train. It connects Udaipur.
A: I will board a train connecting Udaipur.

 

11. She has arrived earlier. Do you know the reason?
A: Do you know the reason of her arrival earlier?

 

12. Kabir was a famous poet. He was a weaver.
A: Kabir, a famous poet, was a weaver.

 

13. We came across a soldier. He was in trouble.
A: We came across a soldier in trouble.

 

14. Mr. Verma is our teacher. Everybody loves him.
A: Mr. Verma, our teacher, is loved by everybody.

 

15. She is very poor. She can not carry on her study.
A: She is too poor to carry on her study.

 

16. He heard the news. He fainted.
A: On hearing the news he fainted.

 

17. He is working hard. His aim is to join army.
A: He is working hard. to join army.

 

18. Work hard. You will pass.
A: You will pass by working hard.

 

19. He told a lie. He was not afraid of it.
A: He was not afraid of telling a lie.

 

20. She was clever. I could notice it.
A: I could notice her cleverness.

 

II. combine the simple sentences into compound sentences.
1. He is Intelligent. He is careless.
A: He is intelligent but careless.

 

2. Walk fast. You will catch bus.
A: Walk fast and you will catch bus.

 

3. Wait here. He will not meet you.
A: Wait here otherwise, he will not meet you.

 

4. He can succeed. He will not work hard.
A: He can succeed but he will not work hard.

 

5. He came late. He would have enjoyed music.
A: He came late otherwise, he would have enjoyed music.

 

6. Morning walk is a good exercise. Everybody should walk.
A: Morning walk is a good exercise, therefore everybody should walk.

 

7. The bus was slow. He reached late.
A: The bus was slow so he reached late

 

8. You are a liar. Your brother is a liar.
A: You are a liar and so is your brother.

 

9. Stand outside. come in.
A: Stand outside or come in.

 

10. She came. She consoled me.
A: She came and consoled me.

 

11. I can not go out. It is very cold outside.
A: It is very cold outside, therefore I cannot go.

 

12. He is a fool. He is dishonest also.
A: Besides being dishonest, he is a fool.

 

13. Richa can not sing. Esha cannot sing.
A: Richa can not sing not can Esha.

 

14. He took bath. He put on new clothes.
A: He took bath and put on new clothes.

 

15. Write to father. Otherwise I would do so.
A: Either you write or I must write to father.

 

16. He is working hard. He wants to pass.
A: He wants to pass and so he is working hard.

 

17. The bus was slow. He reached late.
A: The bus was slow so he reached late.

 

18. I went to indore. I spent a few days there.
A: I went to indore and there I spent a few days.

 

19. Say one word. I shall kill you.
A: One word more and I shall kill you.

 

20. You play piano. Your brother plays piano.
A: You play piano and so your brother.

 

III. Change the following simple sentences into complex sentences
 

1. Truth is eternal.
A: What is true is eternal.

 

2. His fall is certain.
A: That he will fall is certain.

 

3. She jumped at my offer
A: She jumped at what I offered her.

 

4. Pay need to my instructions.
A: Pay need to what I have instructed.

 

5. Her remarks about my failure were disgusting
A: Her remarks that I had failed were disgusting

 

6. This is my native village.
A: This is the village where I was born.

 

7. His offence is unpardonable.
A: The offence which he committed is not pardonable

 

8. The pen given by him is very cheap.
A: The pen which is given by him is very cheap

 

9. A tired man cannot do work well.
A: A man who is tired, cannot work well.

 

10. He invented a machine for stitching.
A: He invented a machine which is used for stitching.

 

IV. Change the following into other forms of degree as directed
 

1. Mango is sweeter than orange (change into P.D.)
A: Orange is not so sweet as Mango.

 

2. The lotus is lovelier than the rose (change into P.D.)
A: The rose is not so lovely as the lotus

 

3. Ramesh is the tallest boy in the class (change into P.D. & C.D.)
A: Ramesh is taller than any other boy in the class. (C.D.)
     No other boy in the class is as tall as Ramesh (P.D.)

 

4. America is the richest country (change into P.D. & C.D.)
A: America is richer than any other country (C.D.)
     No other country is so rich as America (P.D.)

 

5. Hamlet is one of the best plays of shakespeare (S.D)
A: Hamlet is better than most other plays of Shakespeare (C.D)
    Very few plays of Shakespeare are as good as Hamlet (P.D.)

 

6. Krishna is stronger than Ramesh (change to P.D.)
A: Ramesh is not so strong as Krishna.

 

7. Ashok is wiser than suresh (change to P.D.)
A: Suresh is not so wise as Ashok

 

8. He is Braver than me (change to P.D.)
A: I am not so brave as him

 

9. Iron is not as strong as steel (change to C.D.)
A: Steel is stronger than Iron

 

10. you can walk faster than me (change to P.D)
A: I can walk as fast as you.

 

11. Lakshman is not taller than kumar (change to P.D)
A: Kumar is as tall as Lakshman

 

12. The fox is not wiser than the dog (change to P.D)
A: The dog is as wise as the Fox

 

13. The Elephant is the biggest of all animals (change to C.D & P.D)
A: No other animal is as big as the Elephant (P.D)
    Elephant is bigger than any other animals (C.D)

 

14. Mount Everest is the highest peak in the world (change to C.D & P.D)
A: No other peak in the world is so high as the Mount Everest (P.D)
     Mount Everest is higher than any other places in the world (C.D)

 

15. Akbar was one of the greatest kings (change to C.D & P.D)
A: No other king was so great as Akbar (P.D)
     Akbar was greater than any other king (C.D)

 

16. Varanasi is not the oldest of all the cities in U.P (change into C.D & P.D)
A: Varanasi is not older than some other cities in U.P.
     Some other cities in U.P are at least as old as varanasi.

 

17. Rustam was as powerful as his brother (change into C.D)
A: Rustam's brother was not more powerful than Rustam.

 

18. Shivaji was one of the greatest warriors of India (change into C.D)
A: Shivaji was greater than most of the warriors in India.

 

19. Eagle flies higher than any other bird (change into P.D & S.D)
A: No other bird flies as high as eagle
    Eagle flies highest of all the birds.

 

20. It is better to lend than borrow (change into P.D)
A: Borrowing is not as good as lending

 

21. Very few writers in India are as famous as R.K. Narayan (change into C.D & S.D)
A: R.K. Narayan is more famous than most of the Indian writers.
     R.K. Narayan is one of the most famous Indian writers.

 

V. Change the following Simple Sentences into Compound Sentences.
 

1. I Shall leave the room with your Permission.
A: You Permit me and I Shall leave the room.

 

2. For all his knowledge he is a fool.
A: He is a man of knowledge but he is a fool.

 

3. He was punished on account of his fault
A: He committed a fault so he was punished.

 

4. Despite his wealth, he is not respected.
A: He is wealthy but he is not respected

 

5. He worked hard to secure high percentage of marks.
A: He worked hard and secured high percentage of marks

 

6. On his return we asked him many questions.
A: He returned and we asked him many questions.

 

7. In addition to mathematics he also teaches Hindi.
A: He teaches mathematics and Hindi also.

 

8. I am thankful to you for sending me money.
A: You sent me money so I am thankful to you.

 

9. Besides being rich he is learned also.
A: He is not only rich but also learned.

 

10. He must work hard to secure high percentage of marks.
A: He must work hard and will secure high percentage of marks.

 

VI. Change the following Complex Sentences into Compound Sentences.
 

1. Although she is Sick, She will Come.
A: She is sick but She will Come.

 

2. If you come by car, we will take you to temple.
A: Come by car and we will take you to temple.

 

3. As it was cold, we did not go out
A: It was cold so we did not go out.

 

4. When the thief was found out, he was arrested.
A: The thief was found out and he arrested.

 

5. When she arrived, everybody welcomed her.
A: She arrived and every body welcomed her.

 

6. If you do not stop smoking, you will suffer from lung disease.
A: You must stop smoking otherwise you will suffer from lung disease.

 

7. I Shall not go, unless I am invited.
A:  I am not invited so I shall not go.

 

8. If you listen seriously, I will tell you all.
A: Listen seriously and I will tell you all.

 

9. I am glad that he has recovered from illness.
A: He has recovered from illness so I am glad.

 

10. I have found the pen that I had lost.
A: I had lost the pen but I have found it.

 

11. He had a dog that was very faithful.
A: He had a dog and that was very faithful.

 

12. Unlucky as he is, he is never disappointed
A: He is Unlucky but he is never disappointed.

 

13. Do this lest you should suffer
A: Do this otherwise you will suffer

 

14. How ever, Intelligent he may be, he cannot succeed.
A: He is very Intelligent but he cannot succeed.

 

15. If he had not given me money, I would not have started business
A: He gave me money and I Started business.

 

16. If he were at home, I would meet him.
A: He is not at home otherwise I would meet him

 

17. If he is at home, I shall give him money.
A: He is not at home otherwise I would give money.

 

18. In case he dies, his son will inherit his property
A: He will die and his son will inherit his property.

 

19. He must work hard so that he may pass.
A: He must work hard and he will pass.

 

20. He could afford to spend something but he spent more.
A: He spent more than he could afford

DEGREES OF COMPARISON

Study the following sentences
a) Deepika is a clever girl
b) Deepika is cleverer than Sravani
c) Deepika is the cleverest of all the girls in the class
In the above sentences, the adjective 'clever' is used in three degrees to show the comparison. They are;
1. Positive Degree
2. Comparative Degree
3. Superlative Degree
★ Positive Degree is used to denote the existence of some quality. Here no comparison is made.
Mahesh is a handsome hero.
Akbar was a great emperor.
★ We use 'Comparative Degree' when there is a difference in respect of some quality between two
persons, places or things.
Ooty is cooler than Chennai. Virat Kohli is better than most other Indian batsmen.
★ When comparison is made among more than two persons, places or things we use 'Superlative Degree'.
It refers to the highest degree of quality.
Burj Khalifa is the tallest tower in the world.
Bahubali is the highest grosser of Telugu movies till date.


Interchange of Degrees of Comparison

Model Positive Comparative Superlative
I Visakhapatnam is not as big as Hyderabad Hyderabad is bigger than Visakhapatnam (Superlative Degree is not possible here as the comparison is made only between two items)
II The rose is at least as beautiful as the lily The lily is not more beautiful than the rose
III No other metal is as heavy as lead Lead is heavier than any other metal Lead is the heaviest metal
IV Very few singers in India  are as great as K.J.Yesudas K.J.Yesudas is greater than most other singers in India K.J.Yesudas is one of the greatest singers in India

PROBLEMS BASED ON ALPHABET

Generally in Alphabetical questions a letter series is given in the English alphabets from A to Z. We have to find out the letters satisfying certain given conditions as regards their positions in the given sequence.
 

Some Models
 

 Directions : Following questions are based on the general English alphabet series.
               AB C D E F G H I J K LM N O P Q R S T U VW X Y Z

 

* If the first five letters of English alphabet are reversed and then next six letters are reversed, again next five letters are reversed, again next six letters are reversed, again last four letters are reversed, then which letter will be 11th to the right of 4th from the left?
                  1) L       2) M       3) N      4) O      5) None of these
Ans: 2
Hint: 15th letter from the left end of the new series is M.

 

* Which letter will be 5th to the left of 24th letter from the left in the above question?
                  1) H       2) S       3) T        4) I       5) None of these
Ans: 3
Hint: 19th letter from the left end. i.e. T

 

* If the first five letters of English alphabet are reversed, so are the next six, so are the next seven and so are the next eight then which letters will be 11th to the right of 7th from the left?
                 1) J        2) K        3) L       4) M         5) None of these
Ans: 3
Hint:   5R   /   6R    /    7R    /   8R     Here, R =
            (I)        (II)       (III)      (IV)    Reversed
       18th letter of the given series comes in section (1)
       = 12th from the left in English alphabet i.e., L. 2(I)+2(II)+(III)+1−18 = 12.

 

* If the first eight letters of English alphabet are reversed, so are the next seven, so are the next six and so are the remaining five letters, then which will be the 17th to the left of 8th letter from the right?
                1) C       2) D          3) G      4) H        5) None of these
Ans: 3
Hint:  8R  /  7R    /  6R    /  5R
           (I)      (II)     (III)     (IV)
            25 - (7 + 6 + 5);
            = 25 - 18;
            = 7; G is the required letter.

 

* If the first seven letters of English alphabet are reversed, so are the next eight, so are the next six and so are the remaining five, then what will be the 11th letter to the left of 3rd letter from the right?
                   1) I       2) J       3) M        4) N         5) None of these
Ans: 2
Hint:   7R   /    8R    /    6R    /    5R
            (I)        (II)        (III)       (IV)
           14th letter from the right comes in section B
           (I) + 14 - { (III) + (IV)}
            7 + 14 - 11 = 10th letter i.e J

 

* If the first three letters of English alphabet are reversed and so on ... and the last two letters are reversed, then which letter will be 19th letter to the right of 17th from the left of 5th letter from the right?
                  1) W      2) B      3) V       4) X          5) None of these
Ans: 3
Hint:   3R   /   3R   /    3R    /    3R   /    3R   /   3R     /     3R   /    3R    /   2UC
            (I)       (II)       (III)       (IV)       (V)       (VI)        (VII)    (VIII)      (IX)
            17 + 5 - 19 = 3rd letter from the right end of the given series
            {(1) + ... + (VII) } + 3 - (IX)
            21 + 3 - 2 = 22; i.e V.
         Directions : Reverse the following sequence of the English alphabet then answer the following questions.
                  A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 

* Which letter is 9th to the left of 24th letter from the left in new series?
                 1) X      2) C      3) O      4) L         5) None of these
Ans: 4
Hint: 15th letter from the left i.e. L

 

* Which letter is 9th to the right of 24th letter from the right in new series?
                1) X       2) C      3) O         4) L         5) None of these
Ans: 3
Hint: 15th letter from the right is O.

 

* Which letter is 7th to the left of second vowel form the right of English alphabet in new series?
               1) U       2) V      3) L      4) M        5) None of these
Ans: 2
Hint: 7th to the left of O is V.

 

* Which letter is 7th to the left of second vowel from the right of reversed English alphabet in new series?
              1) U        2) V         3) L        4) M            5) None of these
Ans: 3
Hint: 7th to the left of E is L.

 

* Which letter is the 6th to the right of first vowel from the right end of English alphabet new series?
              1) O        2) A        3) B        4) P         5) None of these
Ans: 1
Hint: 6th to the right of U is O.
          (12 - 18): Both half has been reversed.
          M L K J I H G F E D C B A Z Y X WV U T S R Q P O N
         

Directions: If the first half of the English alphabet is reversed and then next portion of English alphabet is reversed so as 'A' takes the position of 'M' and 'N' takes the position of 'Z' then answer the following questions.
              A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 

* Which letter will be the 6th to the left of 17th letter to the right of 7th from the left?
                 1) U       2) V      3) C        4) D        5) None of these
Ans: 2.
Hint: We have to count from the left and we have to find out 18th element from the left. Suppose first and second sections of the English alphabet is α and β respectively.
   2 α + β + 1 − required position of element from the left
           26 + 13 + 1 − 18 = 22; i.e V

 

* Which letter will be 4th to the left of 7th letter to the right of 8th letter from the left?
                    1) B       2) C      3) K        4) L          5) None of these
Ans: 2.
Hint: 14 − 11 = 3; i.e., C

 

* Which letter will be in the midway between 4th from the left and 13th from the right?
                   1) H          2) I          3) G         4) V           5) None of these
Ans: 5.
Hint: 14 − 5, E,

 

* Which letter will be 9th letter to the left of 3rd letter from the right?
                  1) Y           2) B         3) P        4) L            5) None of these
Ans: 1.
Hint: Here we have to count from the right. We have to find out 12th letter from the right, means 15th letter from the left.
           = 2α +β +15 = 25. Hence 25th letter of the alphabet is Y.

 

* Which letter will occupy fifteenth place from the left?
                 1) Y       2) X       3) O        4) N         5) None of these
Ans: 1.
Hint: 2α + β + 1 − 15
          26 + 13 + 1 - 15 = 25 [Since, the number of elements in α section is 13 and in β section is 13.]

 

* If every alternate letter starting from M indicates letter of word WELTANSCHAUUNG then which letter will indicate 'S' of the given word?
                  1) Y         2) X        3) Z          4) A          5) None of these
Ans: 1.

 

* If the second and the first parts of the English alphabet are interchanged with each other, then what will be the 4th letter to the left of sixth letter from the right?
                 1) W        2) J          3) D       4) Q          5) None of these
Ans: 2.
         

Directions  : These questions are based on the following English alphabet series.
  A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 

* Which letter is the 10th to the right of 11th from the left?
                    1) T         2) U          3) V         4) F          5) None of these
Ans: 2

 

* Which letter is the 10th to the left of 16th from the left?
                   1) F         2) Z          3) U         4) E          5) None of these
Ans: 1

 

* Which letter is at midway between the ninth letter from the right eighth letter from the left in the given alphabets?
                  1) N          2) O        3) L          4) M           5) None of these
Ans: 4

 

* How many letters are at the midway of 6th and 19th letter from the left?
                 1) 11          2) 13         3) 10        4) 12         5) None of these
Ans: 4

 

* Which letter should ninth letter to the left of ninth letter from the right, if the first half of given alphabet is reversed?
                 1) D         2) E           3) F           4) I           5) None of these
Ans: 2

 

* If the first half the given alphabets are written in reverse order which letter should be the 8th letter to the left of 14th letter from the right?
                1) E           2) G          3) F          4) D         5) None of these
Ans: 5; I

 

* If the second half of the alphabet are written in reverse order then which will be the ninth to the right of 11th from the left?
                1) V          2) I          3) F          4) U         5) None of these
Ans: 5; T